CodeTitleDescription
11Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting TThe Sector as a Whole

The Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting sector comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing crops, raising animals, harvesting timber, and harvesting fish and other animals from a farm, ranch, or their natural habitats.

The establishments in this sector are often described as farms, ranches, dairies, greenhouses, nurseries, orchards, or hatcheries. A farm may consist of a single tract of land or a number of separate tracts which may be held under different tenures. For example, one tract may be owned by the farm operator and another rented. It may be operated by the operator alone or with the assistance of members of the household or hired employees, or it may be operated by a partnership, corporation, or other type of organization. When a landowner has one or more tenants, renters, croppers, or managers, the land operated by each is considered a farm.

The sector distinguishes two basic activities: agricultural production and agricultural support activities. Agricultural production includes establishments performing the complete farm or ranch operation, such as farm owner-operators and tenant farm operators. Agricultural support activities include establishments that perform one or more activities associated with farm operation, such as soil preparation, planting, harvesting, and management, on a contract or fee basis.

Excluded from the Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting sector are establishments primarily engaged in agricultural research and establishments primarily engaged in administering programs for regulating and conserving land, mineral, wildlife, and forest use. These establishments are classified in Industry 54171, Research and Development in the Physical, Engineering, and Life Sciences; and Industry 92412, Administration of Conservation Programs, respectively.
111Crop Production TIndustries in the Crop Production subsector grow crops mainly for food and fiber. The subsector comprises establishments, such as farms, orchards, groves, greenhouses, and nurseries, primarily engaged in growing crops, plants, vines, or trees and their seeds.

The industries in this subsector are grouped by similarity of production activity, including biological and physiological characteristics and economic requirements, the length of growing season, degree of crop rotation, extent of input specialization, labor requirements, and capital demands. The production process is typically completed when the raw product or commodity grown reaches the "farm gate" for market, that is, at the point of first sale or price determination.

Establishments are classified in the Crop Production subsector when crop production (i.e., value of crops for market) accounts for one-half or more of the establishment's total agricultural production. Within the subsector, establishments are classified in a specific industry when a product or industry family of products (i.e., oilseed and grain farming, vegetable and melon farming, fruit and tree nut farming) account for one-half or more of the establishment's agricultural production. Establishments with one-half or more crop production with no one product or family of products of an industry accounting for one-half of the establishment's agricultural production are treated as general combination crop farming and are classified in Industry 11199, All Other Crop Farming.

Industries in the Crop Production subsector include establishments that own, operate, and manage and those that operate and manage. Those that manage only are classified in Subsector 115, Support Activities for Agriculture and Forestry. Establishments that raise aquatic plants in controlled or selected aquatic environments are classified in Subsector 112, Animal Production and Aquaculture.
1111Oilseed and Grain Farming TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) growing oilseed and/or grain crops and/or (2) producing oilseed and grain seeds. These crops have an annual life cycle and are typically grown in open fields.
11111Soybean Farming TSee industry description for 111110.
111110Soybean FarmingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing soybeans and/or producing soybean seeds.

Cross-References.
11112Oilseed (except Soybean) Farming TSee industry description for 111120.
111120Oilseed (except Soybean) FarmingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing fibrous oilseed producing plants and/or producing oilseed seeds, such as sunflower, safflower, flax, rape, canola, and sesame.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
11113Dry Pea and Bean Farming TSee industry description for 111130.
111130Dry Pea and Bean FarmingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing dry peas, beans, and/or lentils.

Cross-References.
11114Wheat Farming TSee industry description for 111140.
111140Wheat FarmingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing wheat and/or producing wheat seeds.

Cross-References.
11115Corn Farming TSee industry description for 111150.
111150Corn FarmingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing corn (except sweet corn) and/or producing corn seeds.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
11116Rice Farming TSee industry description for 111160.
111160Rice FarmingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing rice (except wild rice) and/or producing rice seeds.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
11119Other Grain Farming TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) growing grain(s) and/or producing grain seeds (except wheat, corn, and rice) or (2) growing a combination of grain(s) and oilseed(s) with no one grain (or family of grains) or oilseed (or family of oilseeds) accounting for one-half of the establishment's agricultural production (i.e., value of crops for market). Combination grain(s) and oilseed(s) establishments may produce oilseed(s) and grain(s) seeds and/or grow oilseed(s) and grain(s).

Illustrative Examples:

Barley farming
Rye farming
Milo farming
Sorghum farming
Oat farming
Wild rice farming
Oilseed and grain combination farming


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
111191Oilseed and Grain Combination FarmingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments engaged in growing a combination of oilseed(s) and grain(s) with no one oilseed (or family of oilseeds) or grain (or family of grains) accounting for one-half of the establishment's agricultural production (value of crops for market). These establishments may produce oilseed(s) and grain(s) seeds and/or grow oilseed(s) and grain(s).

Cross-References.
111199All Other Grain FarmingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing grains and/or producing grain(s) seeds (except wheat, corn, rice, and oilseed(s) and grain(s) combinations).

Illustrative Examples:

Barley farming
Sorghum farming
Oat farming
Wild rice farming
Rye farming


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
1112Vegetable and Melon Farming TNULL
11121Vegetable and Melon Farming TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) growing vegetable and/or melon crops; (2) producing vegetable and/or melon seeds; and (3) growing vegetable and/or melon bedding plants. The crops included in this industry have an annual growth cycle and are grown in open fields. Climate and cultural practices limit producing areas but often permit the growing of a combination of crops in a year.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
111211Potato FarmingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing potatoes and/or producing seed potatoes.

Cross-References.
111219Other Vegetable (except Potato) and Melon FarmingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) growing melons and/or vegetables (except potatoes; dry peas; dry beans; field, silage, or seed corn; and sugar beets); (2) producing vegetable and/or melon seeds; and (3) growing vegetable and/or melon bedding plants.

Illustrative Examples:

Carrot farming
Squash farming
Green bean farming
Tomato farming
Watermelon farming
Melon farming (e.g., cantaloupe, casaba, honeydew, watermelon)
Vegetable (except potato) farming
Pepper farming (e.g., bell, chili, green, red, sweet peppers)


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
1113Fruit and Tree Nut Farming TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing fruit and/or tree nut crops. The crops included in this industry group are generally not grown from seeds and have a perennial life cycle.
11131Orange Groves TSee industry description for 111310.
111310Orange GrovesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing oranges.
11132Citrus (except Orange) Groves TSee industry description for 111320.
111320Citrus (except Orange) GrovesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing citrus fruits (except oranges).

Illustrative Examples:

Citrus groves (except oranges)
Mandarin groves
Grapefruit groves
Tangelo groves
Lemon groves
Tangerine groves


Cross-References.
11133Noncitrus Fruit and Tree Nut Farming TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) growing noncitrus fruits (e.g., apples, grapes, berries, peaches); (2) growing tree nuts (e.g., pecans, almonds, pistachios); or (3) growing a combination of fruit(s) and tree nut(s) with no one fruit (or family of fruit) or family of tree nuts accounting for one-half of the establishment's agricultural production (i.e., value of crops for market).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
111331Apple OrchardsThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing apples.

Cross-References.
111332Grape VineyardsThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing grapes and/or growing grapes to sun dry into raisins.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
111333Strawberry FarmingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing strawberries.

Cross-References.
111334Berry (except Strawberry) FarmingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing berries.

Illustrative Examples:

Berry (except strawberries) farming
Cranberry farming
Blackberry farming
Currant farming
Blueberry farming
Raspberry farming


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
111335Tree Nut FarmingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing tree nuts.

Illustrative Examples:

Almond farming
Pistachio farming
Filbert farming
Tree nut farming
Macadamia farming
Walnut farming
Pecan farming


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
111336Fruit and Tree Nut Combination FarmingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing a combination of fruit(s) and tree nut(s) with no one fruit (or family of fruit) or family of tree nuts accounting for one-half of the establishment's agricultural production (i.e., value of crops for market).

Cross-References.
111339Other Noncitrus Fruit FarmingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing noncitrus fruits (except apples, grapes, berries, and fruit(s) and tree nut(s) combinations).

Illustrative Examples:

Apricot farming
Fig farming
Banana farming
Noncitrus fruit farming
Cherry farming
Peach farming
Coffee farming
Pineapple farming
Date farming
Prune farming


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
1114Greenhouse, Nursery, and Floriculture Production TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing crops of any kind under cover and/or growing nursery stock and flowers. "Under cover" is generally defined as greenhouses, cold frames, cloth houses, and lath houses. The crops grown are removed at various stages of maturity and have annual and perennial life cycles. The nursery stock includes short rotation woody crops that have growth cycles of 10 years or less.
11141Food Crops Grown Under Cover TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing food crops (e.g., fruits, melons, tomatoes) under glass or protective cover.

Cross-References.
111411Mushroom ProductionThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing mushrooms under cover in mines underground, or in other controlled environments.
111419Other Food Crops Grown Under CoverThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing food crops (except mushrooms) under glass or protective cover.

Illustrative Examples:

Alfalfa sprout farming, grown under cover
Melon farming, grown under cover
Vegetable farming, grown under cover
Hydroponic crop farming
Fruit farming, grown under cover


Cross-References.
11142Nursery and Floriculture Production TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) growing nursery and floriculture products (e.g., nursery stock, shrubbery, cut flowers, flower seeds, foliage plants) under cover or in open fields and/or (2) growing short rotation woody trees with a growing and harvesting cycle of 10 years or less for pulp or tree stock (e.g., cut Christmas trees, cottonwoods).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
111421Nursery and Tree ProductionThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) growing nursery products, nursery stock, shrubbery, bulbs, fruit stock, sod, and so forth, under cover or in open fields and/or (2) growing short rotation woody trees with a growth and harvest cycle of 10 years or less for pulp or tree stock.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
111422Floriculture ProductionThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing and/or producing floriculture products (e.g., cut flowers and roses, cut cultivated greens, potted flowering and foliage plants, and flower seeds) under cover and in open fields.

Cross-References.
1119Other Crop Farming TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) growing crops (except oilseed and/or grain; vegetable and/or melon; fruit and tree nut; and greenhouse, nursery, and/or floriculture products), such as tobacco, cotton, sugarcane, hay, sugar beets, peanuts, agave, herbs and spices, and hay and grass seeds, or (2) growing a combination of crops (except a combination of oilseed(s) and grain(s) and a combination of fruit(s) and tree nut(s)).
11191Tobacco Farming TSee industry description for 111910.
111910Tobacco FarmingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing tobacco.
11192Cotton Farming TSee industry description for 111920.
111920Cotton FarmingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing cotton.

Cross-References.
11193Sugarcane Farming TSee industry description for 111930.
111930Sugarcane FarmingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing sugarcane.
11194Hay Farming TSee industry description for 111940.
111940Hay FarmingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing hay, alfalfa, clover, and/or mixed hay.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
11199All Other Crop Farming TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) growing crops (except oilseeds and/or grains; vegetables and/or melons; fruits and/or tree nuts; greenhouse, nursery, and/or floriculture products; tobacco; cotton; sugarcane; or hay) or (2) growing a combination of crops (except a combination of oilseed(s) and grain(s); and a combination of fruit(s) and tree nut(s)) with no one crop or family of crops accounting for one-half of the establishment's agricultural production (i.e., value of crops for market).

Illustrative Examples:

Agave farming
Spice farming
General combination crop farming (except oilseed and grain; vegetables and melons; fruit and nut combinations)
Tea farming
Hay seed farming
Maple sap gathering
Peanut farming
Sugar beet farming
Grass seed farming


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
111991Sugar Beet FarmingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing sugar beets.

Cross-References.
111992Peanut FarmingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing peanuts.
111998All Other Miscellaneous Crop FarmingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one of the following: (1) growing crops (except oilseeds and/or grains; vegetables and/or melons; fruits and/or tree nuts; greenhouse, nursery, and/or floriculture products; tobacco; cotton; sugarcane; hay; sugar beets; or peanuts); (2) growing a combination of crops (except a combination of oilseed(s) and grain(s); and a combination of fruit(s) and tree nut(s)) with no one crop or family of crops accounting for one-half of the establishment's agricultural production (i.e., value of crops for market); or (3) gathering tea or maple sap.

Illustrative Examples:

Agave farming
Mint farming
General combination crop farming (except oilseed and grain; vegetables and melons; fruit and tree nut combinations)
Hay seed farming
Grass seed farming
Hop farming
Spice farming


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
112Animal Production and Aquaculture TIndustries in the Animal Production and Aquaculture subsector raise or fatten animals for the sale of animals or animal products and/or raise aquatic plants and animals in controlled or selected aquatic environments for the sale of aquatic plants, animals, or their products. The subsector includes establishments, such as ranches, farms, and feedlots, primarily engaged in keeping, grazing, breeding, or feeding animals. These animals are kept for the products they produce or for eventual sale. The animals are generally raised in various environments, from total confinement or captivity to feeding on an open range pasture.

The industries in this subsector are grouped by important factors, such as suitable grazing or pasture land, specialized buildings, type of equipment, and the amount and types of labor required. Establishments are classified in the Animal Production and Aquaculture subsector when animal production (i.e., value of animals for market) accounts for one-half or more of the establishment's total agricultural production. Establishments with one-half or more animal production with no one animal product or family of animal products of an industry accounting for one-half of the establishment's agricultural production are treated as combination animal farming classified in Industry 11299, All Other Animal Production.
1121Cattle Ranching and Farming TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in raising cattle, milking dairy cattle, or feeding cattle for fattening.
11211Beef Cattle Ranching and Farming, including Feedlots TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in raising cattle (including cattle for dairy herd replacements), or feeding cattle for fattening.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
112111Beef Cattle Ranching and FarmingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in raising cattle (including cattle for dairy herd replacements).

Cross-References.
112112Cattle FeedlotsThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in feeding cattle for fattening.

Cross-References.
11212Dairy Cattle and Milk Production TSee industry description for 112120.
112120Dairy Cattle and Milk ProductionThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in milking dairy cattle.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
11213Dual-Purpose Cattle Ranching and Farming TSee industry description for 112130.
112130Dual-Purpose Cattle Ranching and FarmingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in raising cattle for both milking and meat production.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
1122Hog and Pig Farming TNULL
11221Hog and Pig Farming TSee industry description for 112210.
112210Hog and Pig FarmingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in raising hogs and pigs. These establishments may include farming activities, such as breeding, farrowing, and the raising of weanling pigs, feeder pigs, or market size hogs.

Cross-References.
1123Poultry and Egg Production TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in breeding, hatching, and raising poultry for meat or egg production.
11231Chicken Egg Production TSee industry description for 112310.
112310Chicken Egg ProductionThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in raising chickens for egg production. The eggs produced may be for use as table eggs or hatching eggs.

Cross-References.
11232Broilers and Other Meat Type Chicken Production TSee industry description for 112320.
112320Broilers and Other Meat Type Chicken ProductionThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in raising broilers, fryers, roasters, and other meat type chickens.

Cross-References.
11233Turkey Production TSee industry description for 112330.
112330Turkey ProductionThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in raising turkeys for meat or egg production.
11234Poultry Hatcheries TSee industry description for 112340.
112340Poultry HatcheriesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in hatching poultry of any kind.
11239Other Poultry Production TSee industry description for 112390.
112390Other Poultry ProductionThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in raising poultry (except chickens for meat or egg production and turkeys).

Illustrative Examples:

Duck production
Ostrich production
Emu production
Pheasant production
Geese production
Quail production


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
1124Sheep and Goat Farming TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in raising sheep, lambs, and goats, or feeding lambs for fattening.
11241Sheep Farming TSee industry description for 112410.
112410Sheep FarmingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in raising sheep and lambs, or feeding lambs for fattening. The sheep or lambs may be raised for sale or wool production.

Cross-References.
11242Goat Farming TSee industry description for 112420.
112420Goat FarmingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in raising goats.
1125Aquaculture TNULL
11251Aquaculture TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the farm raising and production of aquatic animals or plants in controlled or selected aquatic environments. These establishments use some form of intervention in the rearing process to enhance production, such as holding in captivity, regular stocking, feeding, and protecting from predators, pests, and disease.

Cross-References.
112511Finfish Farming and Fish HatcheriesThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) farm raising finfish (e.g., catfish, trout, goldfish, tropical fish, minnows) and/or (2) hatching fish of any kind.

Cross-References.
112512Shellfish FarmingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in farm raising shellfish (e.g., crayfish, shrimp, oysters, clams, mollusks).

Cross-References.
112519Other AquacultureThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) farm raising of aquatic animals (except finfish and shellfish) and/or (2) farm raising of aquatic plants. Alligator, algae, frog, seaweed, or turtle production is included in this industry.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
1129Other Animal Production TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in raising animals and insects (except cattle, hogs and pigs, poultry, sheep and goats, and aquaculture) for sale or product production. These establishments are primarily engaged in raising one of the following: bees, horses and other equines, rabbits and other fur-bearing animals, and so forth, and producing products, such as honey and other bee products. Establishments primarily engaged in raising a combination of animals with no one animal or family of animals accounting for one-half of the establishment's agricultural production (i.e., value of animals for market) are included in this industry group.
11291Apiculture TSee industry description for 112910.
112910ApicultureThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in raising bees. These establishments may collect and gather honey; and/or sell queen bees, packages of bees, royal jelly, bees' wax, propolis, venom, pollen, and/or other bee products.
11292Horses and Other Equine Production TSee industry description for 112920.
112920Horses and Other Equine ProductionThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in raising horses, mules, donkeys, and other equines.

Cross-References.
11293Fur-Bearing Animal and Rabbit Production TSee industry description for 112930.
112930Fur-Bearing Animal and Rabbit ProductionThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in raising fur-bearing animals including rabbits. These animals may be raised for sale or for their pelt production.

Cross-References.
11299All Other Animal Production TSee industry description for 112990.
112990All Other Animal ProductionThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) raising animals (except cattle, hogs and pigs, poultry, sheep and goats, aquaculture, apiculture, horses and other equines; and fur-bearing animals including rabbits) or (2) raising a combination of animals, with no one animal or family of animals accounting for one-half of the establishment's agricultural production (i.e., value of animals for market).

Illustrative Examples:

Bird production (e.g., canaries, parakeets, parrots)
Laboratory animal production (e.g., rats, mice, guinea pigs)
Combination animal farming (except dairy, poultry)
Companion animals production (e.g., cats, dogs)
Worm production
Deer production
Llama production


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
113Forestry and Logging TIndustries in the Forestry and Logging subsector grow and harvest timber on a long production cycle (i.e., of 10 years or more). Long production cycles use different production processes than short production cycles, which require more horticultural interventions prior to harvest, resulting in processes more similar to those found in the Crop Production subsector. Consequently, Christmas tree production and other production involving production cycles of less than 10 years, are classified in the Crop Production subsector.

Industries in this subsector specialize in different stages of the production cycle. Reforestation requires production of seedlings in specialized nurseries. Timber production requires natural forest or suitable areas of land that are available for a long duration. The maturation time for timber depends upon the species of tree, the climatic conditions of the region, and the intended purpose of the timber. The harvesting of timber (except when done on an extremely small scale) requires specialized machinery unique to the industry. Establishments gathering forest products, such as gums, barks, balsam needles, rhizomes, fibers, Spanish moss, and ginseng and truffles, are also included in this subsector.
1131Timber Tract Operations TNULL
11311Timber Tract Operations TSee industry description for 113110.
113110Timber Tract OperationsThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the operation of timber tracts for the purpose of selling standing timber.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
1132Forest Nurseries and Gathering of Forest Products TNULL
11321Forest Nurseries and Gathering of Forest Products TSee industry description for 113210.
113210Forest Nurseries and Gathering of Forest ProductsThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) growing trees for reforestation and/or (2) gathering forest products, such as gums, barks, balsam needles, rhizomes, fibers, Spanish moss, ginseng, and truffles.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
1133Logging TNULL
11331Logging TSee industry description for 113310.
113310LoggingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) cutting timber; (2) cutting and transporting timber; and (3) producing wood chips in the field.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
114Fishing, Hunting and Trapping TIndustries in the Fishing, Hunting and Trapping subsector harvest fish and other wild animals from their natural habitats and are dependent upon a continued supply of the natural resource. The harvesting of fish is the predominant economic activity of this subsector and it usually requires specialized vessels that, by the nature of their size, configuration and equipment, are not suitable for any other type of production, such as transportation.

Hunting and trapping activities utilize a wide variety of production processes and are classified in the same subsector as fishing because the availability of resources and the constraints imposed, such as conservation requirements and proper habitat maintenance, are similar.
1141Fishing TNULL
11411Fishing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the commercial catching or taking of finfish, shellfish, or miscellaneous marine products from a natural habitat, such as the catching of bluefish, eels, salmon, tuna, clams, crabs, lobsters, mussels, oysters, shrimp, frogs, sea urchins, and turtles.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
114111Finfish FishingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the commercial catching or taking of finfish (e.g., bluefish, salmon, trout, tuna) from their natural habitat.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
114112Shellfish FishingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the commercial catching or taking of shellfish (e.g., clams, crabs, lobsters, mussels, oysters, sea urchins, shrimp) from their natural habitat.

Cross-References.
114119Other Marine FishingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the commercial catching or taking of marine animals (except finfish and shellfish).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
1142Hunting and Trapping TNULL
11421Hunting and Trapping TSee industry description for 114210.
114210Hunting and TrappingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) commercial hunting and trapping; (2) operating commercial game preserves, such as game retreats; and (3) operating hunting preserves.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
115Support Activities for Agriculture and Forestry TIndustries in the Support Activities for Agriculture and Forestry subsector provide support services that are an essential part of agricultural and forestry production. These support activities may be performed by the agriculture or forestry producing establishment or conducted independently as an alternative source of inputs required for the production process for a given crop, animal, or forestry industry. Establishments that primarily perform these activities independent of the agriculture or forestry producing establishment are in this subsector.
1151Support Activities for Crop Production TNULL
11511Support Activities for Crop Production TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing support activities for growing crops.

Illustrative Examples:

Aerial crop dusting or spraying (i.e., using specialized or dedicated aircraft)
Farm management services
Cotton ginning
Planting crops
Cultivating services
Vineyard cultivation services


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
115111Cotton GinningThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in ginning cotton.
115112Soil Preparation, Planting, and CultivatingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in performing a soil preparation activity or crop production service, such as plowing, fertilizing, seed bed preparation, planting, cultivating, and crop protecting services.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
115113Crop Harvesting, Primarily by MachineThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in mechanical harvesting, picking, and combining of crops, and related activities. The machinery used is provided by the servicing establishment.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
115114Postharvest Crop Activities (except Cotton Ginning)This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in performing services on crops, subsequent to their harvest, with the intent of preparing them for market or further processing. These establishments provide postharvest activities, such as crop cleaning, sun drying, shelling, fumigating, curing, sorting, grading, packing, and cooling.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
115115Farm Labor Contractors and Crew LeadersThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in supplying labor for agricultural production or harvesting.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
115116Farm Management ServicesThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing farm management services on a contract or fee basis usually to citrus groves, orchards, or vineyards. These establishments always provide management and may arrange or contract for the partial or the complete operations of the farm establishment(s) they manage. Operational activities may include cultivating, harvesting, and/or other specialized agricultural support activities.

Cross-References.
1152Support Activities for Animal Production TNULL
11521Support Activities for Animal Production TSee industry description for 115210.
115210Support Activities for Animal ProductionThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in performing support activities related to raising livestock (e.g., cattle, goats, hogs, horses, poultry, sheep). These establishments may perform one or more of the following: (1) breeding services for animals, including companion animals (e.g., cats, dogs, pet birds); (2) pedigree record services; (3) boarding horses; (4) dairy herd improvement activities; (5) livestock spraying; and (6) sheep dipping and shearing.

Cross-References.
1153Support Activities for Forestry TNULL
11531Support Activities for Forestry TSee industry description for 115310.
115310Support Activities for ForestryThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in performing particular support activities related to timber production, wood technology, forestry economics and marketing, and forest protection. These establishments may provide support activities for forestry, such as estimating timber, forest firefighting, forest pest control, treating burned forests from the air for reforestation or on an emergency basis, and consulting on wood attributes and reforestation.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
21Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction TThe Sector as a Whole

The Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction sector comprises establishments that extract naturally occurring mineral solids, such as coal and ores; liquid minerals, such as crude petroleum; and gases, such as natural gas. The term mining is used in the broad sense to include quarrying, well operations, beneficiating (e.g., crushing, screening, washing, and flotation), and other preparation customarily performed at the mine site, or as a part of mining activity.

The Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction sector distinguishes two basic activities: mine operation and mining support activities. Mine operation includes establishments operating mines, quarries, or oil and gas wells on their own account or for others on a contract or fee basis. Mining support activities include establishments that perform exploration (except geophysical surveying) and/or other mining services on a contract or fee basis (except mine site preparation and construction of oil/gas pipelines).

Establishments in the Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction sector are grouped and classified according to the natural resource mined or to be mined. Industries include establishments that develop the mine site, extract the natural resources, and/or those that beneficiate (i.e., prepare) the mineral mined. Beneficiation is the process whereby the extracted material is reduced to particles that can be separated into mineral and waste, the former suitable for further processing or direct use. The operations that take place in beneficiation are primarily mechanical, such as grinding, washing, magnetic separation, and centrifugal separation. In contrast, manufacturing operations primarily use chemical and electrochemical processes, such as electrolysis and distillation. However, some treatments, such as heat treatments, take place in both the beneficiation and the manufacturing (i.e., smelting/refining) stages. The range of preparation activities varies by mineral and the purity of any given ore deposit. While some minerals, such as petroleum and natural gas, require little or no preparation, others are washed and screened, while yet others, such as gold and silver, can be transformed into bullion before leaving the mine site.

Mining, beneficiating, and manufacturing activities often occur in a single location. Separate receipts will be collected for these activities whenever possible. When receipts cannot be broken out between mining and manufacturing, establishments that mine or quarry nonmetallic minerals, and then beneficiate the nonmetallic minerals into more finished manufactured products are classified based on the primary activity of the establishment. A mine that manufactures a small amount of finished products will be classified in Sector 21, Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction. An establishment that mines whose primary output is a more finished manufactured product will be classified in Sector 31-33, Manufacturing.
211Oil and Gas Extraction TIndustries in the Oil and Gas Extraction subsector operate and/or develop oil and gas field properties. Such activities may include exploration for crude petroleum and natural gas; drilling, completing, and equipping wells; operating separators, emulsion breakers, desilting equipment, and field gathering lines for crude petroleum and natural gas; and all other activities in the preparation of oil and gas up to the point of shipment from the producing property. This subsector includes the production of crude petroleum, the mining and extraction of oil from oil shale and oil sands, the production of natural gas, sulfur recovery from natural gas, and recovery of hydrocarbon liquids.

Establishments in this subsector include those that operate oil and gas wells on their own account or for others on a contract or fee basis. Establishments primarily engaged in providing support services, on a contract or fee basis, required for the drilling or operation of oil and gas wells (except geophysical surveying and mapping, mine site preparation, and construction of oil/gas pipelines) are classified in Subsector 213, Support Activities for Mining.
2111Oil and Gas Extraction TNULL
21112Crude Petroleum ExtractionSee industry description for 211120.
211120Crude Petroleum ExtractionThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) the exploration, development, and/or the production of petroleum from wells in which the hydrocarbons will initially flow or can be produced using normal or enhanced drilling and extraction techniques or (2) the production of crude petroleum from surface shales or tar sands or from reservoirs in which the hydrocarbons are semisolids. Establishments in this industry operate oil wells on their own account or for others on a contract or fee basis.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
21113Natural Gas ExtractionSee industry description for 211130.
211130Natural Gas ExtractionThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) the exploration, development, and/or the production of natural gas from wells in which the hydrocarbons will initially flow or can be produced using normal or enhanced drilling and extraction techniques or (2) the recovery of liquid hydrocarbons from oil and gas field gases. Establishments primarily engaged in sulfur recovery from natural gas are included in this industry.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
212Mining (except Oil and Gas) TIndustries in the Mining (except Oil and Gas) subsector primarily engage in mining, mine site development, and beneficiating (i.e., preparing) metallic minerals and nonmetallic minerals, including coal. The term "mining" is used in the broad sense to include ore extraction, quarrying, and beneficiating (e.g., crushing, screening, washing, sizing, concentrating, and flotation), customarily done at the mine site.

Beneficiation is the process whereby the extracted material is reduced to particles which can be separated into mineral and waste, the former suitable for further processing or direct use. The operations that take place in beneficiation are primarily mechanical, such as grinding, washing, magnetic separation, centrifugal separation, and so on. In contrast, manufacturing operations primarily use chemical and electrochemical processes, such as electrolysis, distillation, and so on. However some treatments, such as heat treatments, take place in both stages: the beneficiation and the manufacturing (i.e., smelting/refining) stages. The range of preparation activities varies by mineral and the purity of any given ore deposit. While some minerals, such as petroleum and natural gas, require little or no preparation, others are washed and screened, while yet others, such as gold and silver, can be transformed into bullion before leaving the mine site.

Establishments in the Mining (except Oil and Gas) subsector include those that have complete responsibility for operating mines and quarries (except oil and gas wells) and those that operate mines and quarries (except oil and gas wells) for others on a contract or fee basis. Establishments primarily engaged in providing support services, on a contract or fee basis, required for the mining and quarrying of minerals are classified in Subsector 213, Support Activities for Mining.
2121Coal Mining TNULL
21211Coal Mining TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) mining bituminous coal, anthracite, and lignite by underground mining, auger mining, strip mining, culm bank mining, and other surface mining; (2) developing coal mine sites; and (3) beneficiating (i.e., preparing) coal (e.g., cleaning, washing, screening, and sizing coal).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
212111Bituminous Coal and Lignite Surface MiningThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) surface mining of bituminous coal and lignite; (2) developing bituminous coal and lignite surface mine sites; (3) surface mining and beneficiating (e.g., cleaning, washing, screening, and sizing) of bituminous coal; or (4) beneficiating (e.g., cleaning, washing, screening, and sizing coal), but not mining, bituminous coal.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
212112Bituminous Coal Underground MiningThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) underground mining of bituminous coal; (2) developing bituminous coal underground mine sites; and (3) underground mining and beneficiating of bituminous coal (e.g., cleaning, washing, screening, and sizing coal).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
212113Anthracite MiningThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) mining anthracite coal; (2) developing anthracite coal mine sites; and (3) beneficiating anthracite coal (e.g., cleaning, washing, screening, and sizing coal).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
2122Metal Ore Mining TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in developing mine sites or mining metallic minerals, and establishments primarily engaged in ore dressing and beneficiating (i.e., preparing) operations, such as crushing, grinding, washing, drying, sintering, concentrating, calcining, and leaching. Beneficiating may be performed at mills operated in conjunction with the mines served or at mills, such as custom mills, operated separately.
21221Iron Ore Mining TSee industry description for 212210.
212210Iron Ore MiningThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) developing mine sites, mining, and/or beneficiating (i.e., preparing) iron ores and manganiferous ores valued chiefly for their iron content and/or (2) producing sinter iron ore (except iron ore produced in iron and steel mills) and other iron ore agglomerates.

Cross-References.
21222Gold Ore and Silver Ore Mining TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in developing the mine site, mining, and/or beneficiating (i.e., preparing) ores valued chiefly for their gold and/or silver content. Establishments primarily engaged in the transformation of the gold and silver into bullion or dore bar in combination with mining activities are included in this industry.

Cross-References.
212221Gold Ore MiningThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in developing the mine site, mining, and/or beneficiating (i.e., preparing) ores valued chiefly for their gold content. Establishments primarily engaged in transformation of the gold into bullion or dore bar in combination with mining activities are included in this industry.

Cross-References.
212222Silver Ore MiningThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in developing the mine site, mining, and/or beneficiating (i.e., preparing) ores valued chiefly for their silver content. Establishments primarily engaged in transformation of the silver into bullion or dore bar in combination with mining activities are included in this industry.

Cross-References.
21223Copper, Nickel, Lead, and Zinc Mining TSee industry description for 212230.
212230Copper, Nickel, Lead, and Zinc MiningThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in developing the mine site, mining, and/or beneficiating (i.e., preparing) ores valued chiefly for their copper, nickel, lead, or zinc content. Beneficiating includes the transformation of ores into concentrates. Establishments primarily engaged in recovering copper concentrates by the precipitation, leaching, or electrowinning of copper ore are included in this industry.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
21229Other Metal Ore Mining TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in developing the mine site, mining, and/or beneficiating (i.e., preparing) metal ores (except iron and manganiferous ores valued for their iron content, gold ore, silver ore, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc ore).

Illustrative Examples:

Antimony ores mining and/or beneficiating
Tantalum ores mining and/or beneficiating
Columbite ores mining and/or beneficiating
Tungsten ores mining and/or beneficiating
Ilmenite ores mining and/or beneficiating
Uranium-radium-vanadium ores mining and/or beneficiating
Molybdenum ores mining and/or beneficiating


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
212291Uranium-Radium-Vanadium Ore MiningThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in developing the mine site, mining, and/or beneficiating (i.e., preparing) uranium-radium-vanadium ores.

Cross-References.
212299All Other Metal Ore MiningThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in developing the mine site, mining, and/or beneficiating (i.e., preparing) metal ores (except iron and manganiferous ores valued for their iron content, gold ore, silver ore, copper, nickel, lead, zinc, and uranium-radium-vanadium ore).

Illustrative Examples:

Antimony ores mining and/or beneficiating
Rare earth metal ores mining and/or beneficiating
Columbite ores mining and/or beneficiating
Tantalum ores mining and/or beneficiating
Ilmenite ores mining and/or beneficiating
Tungsten ores mining and/or beneficiating
Molybdenum ores mining and/or beneficiating


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
2123Nonmetallic Mineral Mining and Quarrying TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in developing mine sites, or in mining or quarrying nonmetallic minerals (except fuels). Also included are certain well and brine operations, and preparation plants primarily engaged in beneficiating (e.g., crushing, grinding, washing, and concentrating) nonmetallic minerals.

Beneficiation is the process whereby the extracted material is reduced to particles which can be separated into mineral and waste, the former suitable for further processing or direct use. The operations that take place in beneficiation are primarily mechanical, such as grinding, washing, magnetic separation, and centrifugal separation. In contrast, manufacturing operations primarily use chemical and electrochemical processes, such as electrolysis and distillation. However, some treatments, such as heat treatments, take place in both the beneficiation and the manufacturing (i.e., smelting/refining) stages. The range of preparation activities varies by mineral and the purity of any given ore deposit. While some minerals, such as petroleum and natural gas, require little or no preparation, others are washed and screened, while yet others, such as gold and silver, can be transformed into bullion before leaving the mine site.
21231Stone Mining and Quarrying TThis industry comprises (1) establishments primarily engaged in developing the mine site, mining or quarrying dimension stone (i.e., rough blocks and/or slabs of stone), or mining and quarrying crushed and broken stone and/or (2) preparation plants primarily engaged in beneficiating stone (e.g., crushing, grinding, washing, screening, pulverizing, and sizing).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
212311Dimension Stone Mining and QuarryingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in developing the mine site and/or mining or quarrying dimension stone (i.e., rough blocks and/or slabs of stone).

Cross-References.
212312Crushed and Broken Limestone Mining and QuarryingThis U.S. industry comprises (1) establishments primarily engaged in developing the mine site, mining or quarrying crushed and broken limestone (including related rocks, such as dolomite, cement rock, marl, travertine, and calcareous tufa) and (2) preparation plants primarily engaged in beneficiating limestone (e.g., grinding or pulverizing).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
212313Crushed and Broken Granite Mining and QuarryingThis U.S. industry comprises (1) establishments primarily engaged in developing the mine site, and/or mining or quarrying crushed and broken granite (including related rocks, such as gneiss, syenite (except nepheline), and diorite) and (2) preparation plants primarily engaged in beneficiating granite (e.g., grinding or pulverizing).
212319Other Crushed and Broken Stone Mining and QuarryingThis U.S. industry comprises: (1) establishments primarily engaged in developing the mine site and/or mining or quarrying crushed and broken stone (except limestone and granite); (2) preparation plants primarily engaged in beneficiating (e.g., grinding and pulverizing) stone (except limestone and granite); and (3) establishments primarily engaged in mining or quarrying bituminous limestone and bituminous sandstone.

Illustrative Examples:

Bituminous limestone mining and/or beneficiating
Marble crushed and broken stone mining and/or beneficiating
Bituminous sandstone mining and/or beneficiating
Sandstone crushed and broken stone mining and/or beneficiating


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
21232Sand, Gravel, Clay, and Ceramic and Refractory Minerals Mining and Quarrying TThis industry comprises (1) establishments primarily engaged in developing the mine site and/or mining, quarrying, dredging for sand and gravel, or mining clay (e.g., china clay, paper clay and slip clay) and (2) preparation plants primarily engaged in beneficiating (e.g., washing, screening, and grinding) sand and gravel, clay, and ceramic and refractory minerals.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
212321Construction Sand and Gravel MiningThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) operating commercial grade (i.e., construction) sand and gravel pits; (2) dredging for commercial grade sand and gravel; and (3) washing, screening, or otherwise preparing commercial grade sand and gravel.

Cross-References.
212322Industrial Sand MiningThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) operating industrial grade sand pits; (2) dredging for industrial grade sand; and (3) washing, screening, or otherwise preparing industrial grade sand.

Cross-References.
212324Kaolin and Ball Clay MiningThis U.S. industry comprises (1) establishments primarily engaged in developing the mine site and/or mining kaolin or ball clay (e.g., china clay, paper clay, and slip clay) and (2) establishments primarily engaged in beneficiating (i.e., preparing) kaolin or ball clay.

Cross-References.
212325Clay and Ceramic and Refractory Minerals MiningThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) mining clay (except kaolin and ball), ceramic, or refractory minerals; (2) developing the mine site for clay, ceramic, or refractory minerals; and (3) beneficiating (i.e., preparing) clay (except kaolin and ball), ceramic, or refractory minerals.

Illustrative Examples:

Bentonite mining and/or beneficiating
Fuller's earth mining and/or beneficiating
Common clay mining and/or beneficiating
Magnesite mining and/or beneficiating
Feldspar mining and/or beneficiating
Nepheline syenite mining and/or beneficiating
Fire clay mining and/or beneficiating
Shale (except oil shale) mining and/or beneficiating


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
21239Other Nonmetallic Mineral Mining and Quarrying TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in developing the mine site, mining, and/or milling or otherwise beneficiating (i.e., preparing) nonmetallic minerals (except coal, stone, sand, gravel, clay, ceramic, and refractory minerals).

Illustrative Examples:

Barite mining and/or beneficiating
Phosphate rock mining and/or beneficiating
Borate, natural, mining and/or beneficiating
Potash mining and/or beneficiating
Peat mining and/or beneficiating
Rock salt mining and/or beneficiating


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
212391Potash, Soda, and Borate Mineral MiningThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in developing the mine site, mining and/or milling, or otherwise beneficiating (i.e., preparing) natural potassium, sodium, or boron compounds. Drylake brine operations are included in this industry, as well as establishments engaged in producing the specified minerals from underground and open pit mines.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
212392Phosphate Rock MiningThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in developing the mine site, mining, milling, and/or drying or otherwise beneficiating (i.e., preparing) phosphate rock.

Cross-References.
212393Other Chemical and Fertilizer Mineral MiningThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in developing the mine site, mining, milling, and/or drying or otherwise beneficiating (i.e., preparing) chemical or fertilizer mineral raw materials (except potash, soda, boron, and phosphate rock).

Illustrative Examples:

Barite mining and/or beneficiating
Rock salt mining and/or beneficiating
Celestite mining and/or beneficiating
Sulfur mining and/or beneficiating
Fluorspar mining and/or beneficiating


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
212399All Other Nonmetallic Mineral MiningThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in developing the mine site, mining and/or milling, or otherwise beneficiating (i.e., preparing) nonmetallic minerals (except stone, sand, gravel, clay, ceramic, refractory minerals, and chemical and fertilizer minerals).

Illustrative Examples:

Gypsum mining and/or beneficiating
Soapstone mining and/or beneficiating
Mica mining and/or beneficiating
Talc mining and/or beneficiating
Pyrophyllite mining and/or beneficiating


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
213Support Activities for Mining TIndustries in the Support Activities for Mining subsector group establishments primarily providing support services, on a contract or fee basis, required for the mining and quarrying of minerals and for the extraction of oil and gas. Establishments performing exploration (except geophysical surveying and mapping) for minerals, on a contract or fee basis, are included in this subsector. Exploration includes traditional prospecting methods, such as taking core samples and making geological observations at prospective sites.

The activities performed on a contract or fee basis by establishments in the Support Activities for Mining subsector are also often performed in-house by mining operators. These activities include taking core samples, making geological observations at prospective sites, excavating slush pits and cellars, and such oil and gas operations as spudding in, drilling in, redrilling, directional drilling, and well surveying; running, cutting, and pulling casings, tubes, and rods; cementing and shooting wells; perforating well casings; acidizing and chemically treating wells; cleaning out, bailing, and swabbing wells; and operating oil and gas field gathering lines.
2131Support Activities for Mining TNULL
21311Support Activities for Mining TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing support services, on a contract or fee basis, required for the mining and quarrying of minerals and for the extraction of oil and gas. Drilling, taking core samples, and making geological observations at prospective sites (except geophysical surveying and mapping) for minerals, on a contract or fee basis, are included in this industry.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
213111Drilling Oil and Gas WellsThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in drilling oil and gas wells for others on a contract or fee basis. This industry includes contractors that specialize in spudding in, drilling in, redrilling, and directional drilling.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
213112Support Activities for Oil and Gas OperationsThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in performing support activities on a contract or fee basis for oil and gas operations (except site preparation and related construction activities). Services included are exploration (except geophysical surveying and mapping); excavating slush pits and cellars, well surveying; running, cutting, and pulling casings, tubes, and rods; cementing wells, shooting wells; perforating well casings; acidizing and chemically treating wells; and cleaning out, bailing, and swabbing wells.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
213113Support Activities for Coal MiningThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing support activities for coal mining (except site preparation and related construction activities) on a contract or fee basis. Exploration for coal is included in this industry. Exploration includes traditional prospecting methods, such as taking core samples and making geological observations at prospective sites.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
213114Support Activities for Metal MiningThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing support activities (except site preparation and related construction activities) on a contract or fee basis for the mining and quarrying of metallic minerals and for the extraction of metal ores. Exploration for these minerals is included in this industry. Exploration (except geophysical surveying and mapping services) includes traditional prospecting methods, such as taking core samples and making geological observations at prospective sites.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
213115Support Activities for Nonmetallic Minerals (except Fuels) MiningThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing support activities, on a contract or fee basis, for the mining and quarrying of nonmetallic minerals (except fuel) and for the extraction of nonmetallic minerals (except site preparation and related construction activities). Exploration for these minerals is included in this industry. Exploration (except geophysical surveying and mapping services) includes traditional prospecting methods, such as taking core samples and making geological observations at prospective sites.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
22Utilities TThe Sector as a Whole

The Utilities sector comprises establishments engaged in the provision of the following utility services: electric power, natural gas, steam supply, water supply, and sewage removal. Within this sector, the specific activities associated with the utility services provided vary by utility: electric power includes generation, transmission, and distribution; natural gas includes distribution; steam supply includes provision and/or distribution; water supply includes treatment and distribution; and sewage removal includes collection, treatment, and disposal of waste through sewer systems and sewage treatment facilities.

Excluded from this sector are establishments primarily engaged in waste management services classified in Subsector 562, Waste Management and Remediation Services. These establishments also collect, treat, and dispose of waste materials; however, they do not use sewer systems or sewage treatment facilities.
221Utilities TIndustries in the Utilities subsector provide electric power, natural gas, steam supply, water supply, and sewage removal through a permanent infrastructure of lines, mains, and pipes. Establishments are grouped together based on the utility service provided and the particular system or facilities required to perform the service.
2211Electric Power Generation, Transmission and Distribution TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in generating, transmitting, and/or distributing electric power. Establishments in this industry group may perform one or more of the following activities: (1) operate generation facilities that produce electric energy; (2) operate transmission systems that convey the electricity from the generation facility to the distribution system; and (3) operate distribution systems that convey electric power received from the generation facility or the transmission system to the final consumer.
22111Electric Power Generation TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating electric power generation facilities. These facilities convert other forms of energy, such as water power (i.e., hydroelectric), fossil fuels, nuclear power, and solar power, into electrical energy. The establishments in this industry produce electric energy and provide electricity to transmission systems or to electric power distribution systems.

Cross-References.
221111Hydroelectric Power GenerationThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating hydroelectric power generation facilities. These facilities use water power to drive a turbine and produce electric energy. The electric energy produced in these establishments is provided to electric power transmission systems or to electric power distribution systems.
221112Fossil Fuel Electric Power GenerationThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating fossil fuel powered electric power generation facilities. These facilities use fossil fuels, such as coal, oil, or gas, in internal combustion or combustion turbine conventional steam process to produce electric energy. The electric energy produced in these establishments is provided to electric power transmission systems or to electric power distribution systems.
221113Nuclear Electric Power GenerationThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating nuclear electric power generation facilities. These facilities use nuclear power to produce electric energy. The electric energy produced in these establishments is provided to electric power transmission systems or to electric power distribution systems.
221114Solar Electric Power GenerationThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating solar electric power generation facilities. These facilities use energy from the sun to produce electric energy. The electric energy produced in these establishments is provided to electric power transmission systems or to electric power distribution systems.
221115Wind Electric Power GenerationThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating wind electric power generation facilities. These facilities use wind power to drive a turbine and produce electric energy. The electric energy produced in these establishments is provided to electric power transmission systems or to electric power distribution systems.
221116Geothermal Electric Power GenerationThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating geothermal electric power generation facilities. These facilities use heat derived from the Earth to produce electric energy. The electric energy produced in these establishments is provided to electric power transmission systems or to electric power distribution systems.
221117Biomass Electric Power GenerationThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating biomass electric power generation facilities. These facilities use biomass (e.g., wood, waste, alcohol fuels) to produce electric energy. The electric energy produced in these establishments is provided to electric power transmission systems or to electric power distribution systems.

Cross-References.
221118Other Electric Power GenerationThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating electric power generation facilities (except hydroelectric, fossil fuel, nuclear, solar, wind, geothermal, biomass). These facilities convert other forms of energy, such as tidal power, into electric energy. The electric energy produced in these establishments is provided to electric power transmission systems or to electric power distribution systems.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
22112Electric Power Transmission, Control, and Distribution TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating electric power transmission systems, controlling (i.e., regulating voltages) the transmission of electricity, and/or distributing electricity. The transmission system includes lines and transformer stations. These establishments arrange, facilitate, or coordinate the transmission of electricity from the generating source to the distribution centers, other electric utilities, or final consumers. The distribution system consists of lines, poles, meters, and wiring that deliver the electricity to final consumers.

Cross-References.
221121Electric Bulk Power Transmission and ControlThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating electric power transmission systems and/or controlling (i.e., regulating voltages) the transmission of electricity from the generating source to distribution centers or other electric utilities. The transmission system includes lines and transformer stations.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
221122Electric Power DistributionThis U.S. industry comprises electric power establishments primarily engaged in either (1) operating electric power distribution systems (i.e., consisting of lines, poles, meters, and wiring) or (2) operating as electric power brokers or agents that arrange the sale of electricity via power distribution systems operated by others.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
2212Natural Gas Distribution TNULL
22121Natural Gas Distribution TSee industry description for 221210.
221210Natural Gas DistributionThis industry comprises: (1) establishments primarily engaged in operating gas distribution systems (e.g., mains, meters); (2) establishments known as gas marketers that buy gas from the well and sell it to a distribution system; (3) establishments known as gas brokers or agents that arrange the sale of gas over gas distribution systems operated by others; and (4) establishments primarily engaged in transmitting and distributing gas to final consumers.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
2213Water, Sewage and Other Systems TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in: (1) operating water treatment plants and/or water supply systems; (2) operating sewer systems or sewage treatment facilities; or (3) providing steam, heated air, or cooled air.
22131Water Supply and Irrigation SystemsSee industry description for 221310.
221310Water Supply and Irrigation SystemsThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating water treatment plants and/or operating water supply systems. The water supply system may include pumping stations, aqueducts, and/or distribution mains. The water may be used for drinking, irrigation, or other uses.
22132Sewage Treatment FacilitiesSee industry description for 221320.
221320Sewage Treatment FacilitiesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating sewer systems or sewage treatment facilities that collect, treat, and dispose of waste.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
22133Steam and Air-Conditioning SupplySee industry description for 221330.
221330Steam and Air-Conditioning SupplyThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing steam, heated air, or cooled air. The steam distribution may be through mains.
23Construction TThe Sector as a Whole

The Construction sector comprises establishments primarily engaged in the construction of buildings or engineering projects (e.g., highways and utility systems). Establishments primarily engaged in the preparation of sites for new construction and establishments primarily engaged in subdividing land for sale as building sites also are included in this sector.

Construction work done may include new work, additions, alterations, or maintenance and repairs. Activities of these establishments generally are managed at a fixed place of business, but they usually perform construction activities at multiple project sites. Production responsibilities for establishments in this sector are usually specified in (1) contracts with the owners of construction projects (prime contracts) or (2) contracts with other construction establishments (subcontracts).

Establishments primarily engaged in contracts that include responsibility for all aspects of individual construction projects are commonly known as general contractors, but also may be known as design-builders, construction managers, turnkey contractors, or (in cases where two or more establishments jointly secure a general contract) joint-venture contractors. Construction managers that provide oversight and scheduling only (i.e., agency) as well as construction managers that are responsible for the entire project (i.e., at risk) are included as general contractor type establishments. Establishments of the "general contractor type" frequently arrange construction of separate parts of their projects through subcontracts with other construction establishments.

Establishments primarily engaged in activities to produce a specific component (e.g., masonry, painting, and electrical work) of a construction project are commonly known as specialty trade contractors. Activities of specialty trade contractors are usually subcontracted from other construction establishments, but especially in remodeling and repair construction, the work may be done directly for the owner of the property.

Establishments primarily engaged in activities to construct buildings to be sold on sites that they own are known as for-sale builders, but also may be known as speculative builders or merchant builders. For-sale builders produce buildings in a manner similar to general contractors, but their production processes also include site acquisition and securing of financial backing. For-sale builders are most often associated with the construction of residential buildings. Like general contractors, they may subcontract all or part of the actual construction work on their buildings.

There are substantial differences in the types of equipment, work force skills, and other inputs required by establishments in this sector. To highlight these differences and variations in the underlying production functions, this sector is divided into three subsectors.

Subsector 236, Construction of Buildings, comprises establishments of the general contractor type and for-sale builders involved in the construction of buildings. Subsector 237, Heavy and Civil Engineering Construction, comprises establishments involved in the construction of engineering projects. Subsector 238, Specialty Trade Contractors, comprises establishments engaged in specialty trade activities generally needed in the construction of all types of buildings.

Force account construction is construction work performed by an enterprise primarily engaged in some business other than construction for its own account, using employees of the enterprise. This activity is not included in the construction sector unless the construction work performed is the primary activity of a separate establishment of the enterprise. The installation and the ongoing repair and maintenance of telecommunications and utility networks is excluded from construction when the establishments performing the work are not independent contractors. Although a growing proportion of this work is subcontracted to independent contractors in the Construction sector, the operating units of telecommunications and utility companies performing this work are included with the telecommunications or utility activities.
236Construction of Buildings TThe Construction of Buildings subsector comprises establishments primarily responsible for the construction of buildings. The work performed may include new work, additions, alterations, or maintenance and repairs. The on-site assembly of precut, panelized, and prefabricated buildings and construction of temporary buildings are included in this subsector. Part or all of the production work for which the establishments in this subsector have responsibility may be subcontracted to other construction establishments--usually specialty trade contractors.

Establishments in this subsector are classified based on the types of buildings they construct. This classification reflects variations in the requirements of the underlying production processes.
2361Residential Building Construction TNULL
23611Residential Building Construction TThis industry comprises establishments primarily responsible for the construction or remodeling and renovation of single-family and multifamily residential buildings. Included in this industry are residential housing general contractors (i.e., new construction, remodeling, or renovating existing residential structures), for-sale builders and remodelers of residential structures, residential project construction management firms, and residential design-build firms.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
236115New Single-Family Housing Construction (except For-Sale Builders)This U.S. industry comprises general contractor establishments primarily responsible for the entire construction of new single-family housing, such as single-family detached houses and town houses or row houses where each housing unit (1) is separated from its neighbors by a ground-to-roof wall and (2) has no housing units constructed above or below. This industry includes general contractors responsible for the on-site assembly of modular and prefabricated houses. Single-family housing design-build firms and single-family construction management firms acting as general contractors are included in this industry.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
236116New Multifamily Housing Construction (except For-Sale Builders)This U.S. industry comprises general contractor establishments primarily responsible for the construction of new multifamily residential housing units (e.g., high-rise, garden, town house apartments, and condominiums where each unit is not separated from its neighbors by a ground-to-roof wall). Multifamily design-build firms and multifamily housing construction management firms acting as general contractors are included in this industry.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
236117New Housing For-Sale BuildersThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in building new homes on land that is owned or controlled by the builder rather than the homebuyer or investor. The land is included with the sale of the home. Establishments in this industry build single-family and/or multifamily homes. These establishments are often referred to as merchant builders, but are also known as production or for-sale builders.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
236118Residential RemodelersThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily responsible for the remodeling construction (including additions, alterations, reconstruction, maintenance, and repairs) of houses and other residential buildings, single-family and multifamily. Included in this industry are remodeling general contractors, for-sale remodelers, remodeling design-build firms, and remodeling project construction management firms.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
2362Nonresidential Building Construction TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily responsible for the construction (including new work, additions, alterations, maintenance, and repairs) of nonresidential buildings. This industry group includes nonresidential general contractors, nonresidential for-sale builders, nonresidential design-build firms, and nonresidential project construction management firms.
23621Industrial Building Construction TSee industry description for 236210.
236210Industrial Building ConstructionThis industry comprises establishments primarily responsible for the construction (including new work, additions, alterations, maintenance, and repairs) of industrial buildings (except warehouses). The construction of selected additional structures, whose production processes are similar to those for industrial buildings (e.g., incinerators, cement plants, blast furnaces, and similar nonbuilding structures), is included in this industry. Included in this industry are industrial building general contractors, industrial building for-sale builders, industrial building design-build firms, and industrial building construction management firms.

Illustrative Examples:

Assembly plant construction
Furnace, industrial plant, construction
Cannery construction
Mine loading and discharging station construction
Cement plant construction
Paper or pulp mill construction
Chemical plant (except petrochemical) construction
Pharmaceutical manufacturing plant construction
Factory construction
Steel mill construction
Food processing plant construction
Waste disposal plant (except sewage treatment) construction


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
23622Commercial and Institutional Building Construction TSee industry description for 236220.
236220Commercial and Institutional Building ConstructionThis industry comprises establishments primarily responsible for the construction (including new work, additions, alterations, maintenance, and repairs) of commercial and institutional buildings and related structures, such as stadiums, grain elevators, and indoor swimming facilities. This industry includes establishments responsible for the on-site assembly of modular or prefabricated commercial and institutional buildings. Included in this industry are commercial and institutional building general contractors, commercial and institutional building for-sale builders, commercial and institutional building design-build firms, and commercial and institutional building project construction management firms.

Illustrative Examples:

Airport building construction
Office building construction
Arena construction
Parking garage construction
Barrack construction
Prison construction
Farm building construction
Radio and television broadcast studio construction
Fire station construction
Religious building (e.g., church, synagogue, mosque, temple) construction
Grain elevator or bin construction
Restaurant construction
Hospital construction
School building construction
Hotel construction
Shopping mall construction
Indoor swimming facility construction
Warehouse construction (e.g., commercial, industrial, manufacturing, private)


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
237Heavy and Civil Engineering Construction TThe Heavy and Civil Engineering Construction subsector comprises establishments whose primary activity is the construction of entire engineering projects (e.g., highways and dams), and specialty trade contractors, whose primary activity is the production of a specific component for such projects. Specialty trade contractors in the Heavy and Civil Engineering Construction subsector generally are performing activities that are specific to heavy and civil engineering construction projects and are not normally performed on buildings. The work performed may include new work, additions, alterations, or maintenance and repairs.

Specialty trade activities are classified in this subsector if the skills and equipment present are specific to heavy or civil engineering construction projects. For example, specialized equipment is needed to paint lines on highways. This equipment is not normally used in building applications so the activity is classified in this subsector. Traffic signal installation, while specific to highways, uses much of the same skills and equipment that are needed for electrical work in building projects and is therefore classified in Subsector 238, Specialty Trade Contractors.

Construction projects involving water resources (e.g., dredging and land drainage) and projects involving open space improvement (e.g., parks and trails) are included in this subsector. Establishments whose primary activity is the subdivision of land into individual building lots usually perform various additional site-improvement activities (e.g., road building and utility line installation) and are included in this subsector.

Establishments in this subsector are classified based on the types of structures that they construct. This classification reflects variations in the requirements of the underlying production processes.
2371Utility System Construction TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in the construction of distribution lines and related buildings and structures for utilities (i.e., water, sewer, petroleum, gas, power, and communication). All structures (including buildings) that are integral parts of utility systems (e.g., storage tanks, pumping stations, power plants, and refineries) are included in this industry group.
23711Water and Sewer Line and Related Structures Construction TSee industry description for 237110.
237110Water and Sewer Line and Related Structures ConstructionThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the construction of water and sewer lines, mains, pumping stations, treatment plants, and storage tanks. The work performed may include new work, reconstruction, rehabilitation, and repairs. Specialty trade contractors are included in this industry if they are engaged in activities primarily related to water, sewer line, and related structures construction. All structures (including buildings) that are integral parts of water and sewer networks (e.g., storage tanks, pumping stations, water treatment plants, and sewage treatment plants) are included in this industry.

Illustrative Examples:

Distribution line, sewer and water, construction
Sewer main, pipe and connection, construction
Fire hydrant installation
Storm sewer construction
Irrigation systems construction
Water main and line construction
Sewage disposal plant construction
Pumping station, water and sewage system, construction
Water system storage tank and tower construction
Reservoir construction
Water treatment plant construction
Water well drilling, digging, boring, or sinking (except water intake wells in oil and gas fields)


Cross-References.
23712Oil and Gas Pipeline and Related Structures Construction TSee industry description for 237120.
237120Oil and Gas Pipeline and Related Structures ConstructionThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the construction of oil and gas lines, mains, refineries, and storage tanks. The work performed may include new work, reconstruction, rehabilitation, and repairs. Specialty trade contractors are included in this industry if they are engaged in activities primarily related to oil and gas pipeline and related structures construction. All structures (including buildings) that are integral parts of oil and gas networks (e.g., storage tanks, pumping stations, and refineries) are included in this industry.

Illustrative Examples:

Distribution line, gas and oil, construction
Oil refinery construction
Gas main construction
Petrochemical plant construction
Gathering line, gas and oil field, construction
Pumping station, gas and oil transmission, construction
Natural gas pipeline construction
Storage tank, natural gas or oil, tank farm or field, construction
Natural gas processing plant construction


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
23713Power and Communication Line and Related Structures Construction TSee industry description for 237130.
237130Power and Communication Line and Related Structures ConstructionThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the construction of power lines and towers, power plants, and radio, television, and telecommunications transmitting/receiving towers. The work performed may include new work, reconstruction, rehabilitation, and repairs. Specialty trade contractors are included in this industry if they are engaged in activities primarily related to power and communication line and related structures construction. All structures (including buildings) that are integral parts of power and communication networks (e.g., transmitting towers, substations, and power plants) are included.

Illustrative Examples:

Alternative energy (e.g., geothermal, ocean wave, solar, wind) structure construction
Power line stringing
Cellular phone tower construction
Radio transmitting tower construction
Co-generation plant construction
Satellite receiving station construction
Communication tower construction
Nuclear power plant construction
Telephone line stringing
Electric light and power plant (except hydroelectric) construction
Transformer station and substation, electric power, construction
Electric power transmission line and tower construction
Underground cable (e.g., cable television, electricity, telephone) laying


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
2372Land Subdivision TNULL
23721Land Subdivision TSee industry description for 237210.
237210Land SubdivisionThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in servicing land and subdividing real property into lots, for subsequent sale to builders. Servicing of land may include excavation work for the installation of roads and utility lines. The extent of work may vary from project to project. Land subdivision precedes building activity and the subsequent building is often residential, but may also be commercial tracts and industrial parks. These establishments may do all the work themselves or subcontract the work to others. Establishments that perform only the legal subdivision of land are not included in this industry.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
2373Highway, Street, and Bridge Construction TNULL
23731Highway, Street, and Bridge Construction TSee industry description for 237310.
237310Highway, Street, and Bridge ConstructionThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the construction of highways (including elevated), streets, roads, airport runways, public sidewalks, or bridges. The work performed may include new work, reconstruction, rehabilitation, and repairs. Specialty trade contractors are included in this industry if they are engaged in activities primarily related to highway, street, and bridge construction (e.g., installing guardrails on highways).

Illustrative Examples:

Airport runway construction
Highway line painting
Causeway construction
Painting traffic lanes or parking lot lines
Culverts, highway, road, and street, construction
Pothole filling, highway, road, street, or bridge
Elevated highway construction
Resurfacing, highway, road, street, or bridge
Guardrail construction
Sign erection, highway, road, street, or bridge


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
2379Other Heavy and Civil Engineering Construction TNULL
23799Other Heavy and Civil Engineering Construction TSee industry description for 237990.
237990Other Heavy and Civil Engineering ConstructionThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in heavy and civil engineering construction projects (excluding highway, street, bridge, and distribution line construction). The work performed may include new work, reconstruction, rehabilitation, and repairs. Specialty trade contractors are included in this industry if they are engaged in activities primarily related to heavy and civil engineering construction projects (excluding highway, street, bridge, distribution line, oil and gas structure, and utilities building and structure construction). Construction projects involving water resources (e.g., dredging and land drainage), development of marine facilities, and projects involving open space improvement (e.g., parks and trails) are included in this industry.

Illustrative Examples:

Channel construction
Land drainage contractors
Dam construction
Marine construction
Dock construction
Microtunneling contractors
Dredging (e.g., canal, channel, ditch, waterway)
Nuclear waste disposal site construction
Earth retention system construction
Park ground and recreational open space improvement construction
Flood control project construction
Railroad construction
Golf course construction
Subway construction
Horizontal drilling (e.g., cable, pipeline, sewer installation)
Trenching, underwater
Hydroelectric generating station construction
Tunnel construction


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
238Specialty Trade Contractors TThe Specialty Trade Contractors subsector comprises establishments whose primary activity is performing specific activities (e.g., pouring concrete, site preparation, plumbing, painting, and electrical work) involved in building construction or other activities that are similar for all types of construction, but that are not responsible for the entire project. The work performed may include new work, additions, alterations, maintenance, and repairs. The production work performed by establishments in this subsector is usually subcontracted from establishments of the general contractor type or for-sale builders, but especially in remodeling and repair construction, work also may be done directly for the owner of the property. Specialty trade contractors usually perform most of their work at the construction site, although they may have shops where they perform prefabrication and other work. Establishments primarily engaged in preparing sites for new construction are also included in this subsector.

There are substantial differences in types of equipment, work force skills, and other inputs required by specialty trade contractors. Establishments in this subsector are classified based on the underlying production function for the specialty trade in which they specialize. Throughout the Specialty Trade Contractors subsector, establishments commonly provide both the parts and labor required to complete work. For example, electrical contractors supply the current-carrying and noncurrent-carrying wiring devices that are required to install a circuit. Plumbing, heating, and air-conditioning contractors also supply the parts required to complete a contract.

Establishments that specialize in activities primarily related to heavy and civil engineering construction that are not normally performed on buildings, such as the painting of lines on highways, are classified in Subsector 237, Heavy and Civil Engineering Construction.

Establishments that are primarily engaged in selling construction materials are classified in Sector 42, Wholesale Trade, or Sector 44-45, Retail Trade, based on the characteristics of the selling unit.
2381Foundation, Structure, and Building Exterior Contractors TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in the specialty trades needed to complete the basic structure (i.e., foundation, frame, and shell) of buildings. The work performed may include new work, additions, alterations, maintenance, and repairs.
23811Poured Concrete Foundation and Structure ContractorsSee industry description for 238110.
238110Poured Concrete Foundation and Structure ContractorsThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in pouring and finishing concrete foundations and structural elements. This industry also includes establishments performing grout and shotcrete work. The work performed may include new work, additions, alterations, maintenance, and repairs.

Illustrative Examples:

Concrete pouring and finishing
Gunite contractors
Concrete pumping (i.e., placement)
Mud-jacking contractors
Concrete work (except paving)
Shotcrete contractors
Footing and foundation concrete contractors


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
23812Structural Steel and Precast Concrete ContractorsSee industry description for 238120.
238120Structural Steel and Precast Concrete ContractorsThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) erecting and assembling structural parts made from steel or precast concrete (e.g., steel beams, structural steel components, and similar products of precast concrete) and/or (2) assembling and installing other steel construction products (e.g., steel rods, bars, rebar, mesh, and cages) to reinforce poured-in-place concrete. The work performed may include new work, additions, alterations, maintenance, and repairs.

Illustrative Examples:

Concrete product (e.g., structural precast, structural prestressed) installation
Rebar contractors
Erecting structural steel
Reinforcing steel contractors
Placing and tying reinforcing rod at a construction site
Structural steel contractors
Precast concrete panel, slab, or form installation


Cross-References.
23813Framing ContractorsSee industry description for 238130.
238130Framing ContractorsThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in structural framing and sheathing using materials other than structural steel or concrete. The work performed may include new work, additions, alterations, maintenance, and repairs.

Illustrative Examples:

Building framing (except structural steel)
Post framing contractors
Foundation, building, wood, contractors
Steel framing contractors
Framing contractors
Wood frame component (e.g., truss) fabrication on site


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
23814Masonry ContractorsSee industry description for 238140.
238140Masonry ContractorsThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in masonry work, stone setting, bricklaying, and other stone work. The work performed may include new work, additions, alterations, maintenance, and repairs.

Illustrative Examples:

Block laying
Marble, granite, and slate, exterior, contractors
Bricklaying
Masonry pointing, cleaning, or caulking
Concrete block laying
Stucco contractors
Foundation (e.g., brick, block, stone), building, contractors


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
23815Glass and Glazing ContractorsSee industry description for 238150.
238150Glass and Glazing ContractorsThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in installing glass panes in prepared openings (i.e., glazing work) and other glass work for buildings. The work performed may include new work, additions, alterations, maintenance, and repairs.

Illustrative Examples:

Decorative glass and mirror installation
Glazing contractors
Glass cladding installation
Stained glass installation
Glass coating and tinting (except automotive) contractors
Window pane or sheet installation
Glass installation (except automotive) contractors


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
23816Roofing ContractorsSee industry description for 238160.
238160Roofing ContractorsThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in roofing. This industry also includes establishments treating roofs (i.e., spraying, painting, or coating) and installing skylights. The work performed may include new work, additions, alterations, maintenance, and repairs.

Illustrative Examples:

Painting, spraying, or coating, roof
Sheet metal roofing installation
Shake and shingle, roof, installation
Skylight installation


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
23817Siding ContractorsSee industry description for 238170.
238170Siding ContractorsThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in installing siding of wood, aluminum, vinyl, or other exterior finish material (except brick, stone, stucco, or curtain wall). This industry also includes establishments installing gutters and downspouts. The work performed may include new work, additions, alterations, maintenance, and repairs.

Illustrative Examples:

Downspout, gutter, and gutter guard installation
Fascia and soffit installation
Siding (e.g., vinyl, wood, aluminum) installation


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
23819Other Foundation, Structure, and Building Exterior ContractorsSee industry description for 238190.
238190Other Foundation, Structure, and Building Exterior ContractorsThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in building foundation and structure trades work (except poured concrete, structural steel, precast concrete, framing, masonry, glass and glazing, roofing, and siding). The work performed may include new work, additions, alterations, maintenance, and repairs.

Illustrative Examples:

Curtain wall, metal, installation
Forms for poured concrete, erecting and dismantling
Welding, on-site, contractors
Ornamental metal work installation
Fire escape installation
Decorative steel and wrought iron work installation


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
2382Building Equipment Contractors TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in installing or servicing equipment that forms part of a building mechanical system (e.g., electricity, water, heating, and cooling). The work performed may include new work, additions, alterations, maintenance, and repairs. Contractors installing specialized building equipment, such as elevators, escalators, service station equipment, and central vacuum cleaning systems, are also included.
23821Electrical Contractors and Other Wiring Installation Contractors TSee industry description for 238210.
238210Electrical Contractors and Other Wiring Installation ContractorsThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in installing and servicing electrical wiring and equipment. Contractors included in this industry may include both the parts and labor when performing work. These contractors may perform new work, additions, alterations, maintenance, and repairs.

Illustrative Examples:

Airport runway lighting contractors
Fiber optic cable (except transmission line) contractors
Alarm system (e.g., fire, burglar), electric, installation only
Highway, street, and bridge lighting and electrical signal installation
Audio equipment (except automotive) installation contractors
Home automation system installation
Lighting system installation
Cable television hookup contractors
Telecommunications equipment and wiring (except transmission line) installation contractors
Computer and network cable installation
Traffic signal installation
Environmental control system installation
Cable splicing, electrical or fiber optic


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
23822Plumbing, Heating, and Air-Conditioning Contractors TSee industry description for 238220.
238220Plumbing, Heating, and Air-Conditioning ContractorsThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in installing and servicing plumbing, heating, and air-conditioning equipment. Contractors in this industry may provide both parts and labor when performing work. The work performed may include new work, additions, alterations, maintenance, and repairs.

Illustrative Examples:

Cooling tower installation
Heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) contractors
Duct work (e.g., cooling, dust collection, exhaust, heating, ventilation) installation
Lawn sprinkler system installation
Fire sprinkler system installation
Mechanical contractors
Fireplace, natural gas, installation
Refrigeration system (e.g., commercial, industrial, scientific) installation
Furnace installation
Sewer hookup and connection, building


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
23829Other Building Equipment Contractors TSee industry description for 238290.
238290Other Building Equipment ContractorsThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in installing or servicing building equipment (except electrical, plumbing, heating, cooling, or ventilation equipment). The repair and maintenance of miscellaneous building equipment is included in this industry. The work performed may include new work, additions, alterations, maintenance, and repairs.

Illustrative Examples:

Automated and revolving door installation
Lightning protection equipment (e.g., lightning rod) installation
Boiler and pipe insulation installation
Machine rigging
Commercial-type door installation
Millwrights
Conveyor system installation
Overhead door, commercial- or industrial-type, installation
Dismantling large-scale machinery and equipment
Revolving door installation
Elevator installation
Satellite dish, household-type, installation
Escalator installation
Vacuum cleaning system, built-in, installation
Gasoline pump, service station, installation


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
2383Building Finishing Contractors TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in the specialty trades needed to finish buildings. The work performed may include new work, additions, alterations, maintenance, and repairs.
23831Drywall and Insulation Contractors TSee industry description for 238310.
238310Drywall and Insulation ContractorsThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in drywall, plaster work, and building insulation work. Plaster work includes applying plain or ornamental plaster, and installation of lath to receive plaster. The work performed may include new work, additions, alterations, maintenance, and repairs. Establishments primarily engaged in providing firestop services are included in this industry.

Illustrative Examples:

Acoustical ceiling tile and panel installation
Lathing contractors
Drop ceiling installation
Plastering (i.e., ornamental, plain) contractors
Drywall contractors
Soundproofing contractors
Firestop contractors
Fresco (i.e., decorative plaster finishing) contractors
Taping and finishing drywall
Gypsum board installation
Wall cavity and attic space insulation installation


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
23832Painting and Wall Covering Contractors TSee industry description for 238320.
238320Painting and Wall Covering ContractorsThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in interior or exterior painting or interior wall covering. The work performed may include new work, additions, alterations, maintenance, and repairs.

Illustrative Examples:

Bridge painting
Paperhanging or removal contractors
House painting
Ship painting contractors
Paint and wallpaper stripping
Wallpaper hanging and removal contractors


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
23833Flooring Contractors TSee industry description for 238330.
238330Flooring ContractorsThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the installation of resilient floor tile, carpeting, linoleum, and hardwood flooring. The work performed may include new work, additions, alterations, maintenance, and repairs.

Illustrative Examples:

Carpet, installation only
Resilient floor tile or sheet (e.g., linoleum, rubber, vinyl), installation only
Vinyl flooring contractors
Resurfacing hardwood flooring
Hardwood flooring, installation only
Floor laying, scraping, finishing, and refinishing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
23834Tile and Terrazzo Contractors TSee industry description for 238340.
238340Tile and Terrazzo ContractorsThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in setting and installing ceramic tile, stone (interior only), and mosaic and/or mixing marble particles and cement to make terrazzo at the job site. The work performed may include new work, additions, alterations, maintenance, and repairs.

Illustrative Examples:

Ceramic tile installation
Mosaic work
Mantel, marble or stone, installation
Tile (except resilient) laying and setting
Stone flooring installation
Marble, granite, and slate, interior installation contractors


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
23835Finish Carpentry Contractors TSee industry description for 238350.
238350Finish Carpentry ContractorsThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in finish carpentry work. The work performed may include new work, additions, alterations, maintenance, and repairs.

Illustrative Examples:

Built-in wood cabinets constructed on site
Molding or trim, wood or plastic, installation
Countertop, residential-type, installation
Paneling installation
Door and window frame construction
Prefabricated kitchen and bath cabinet, residential-type, installation
Garage door, residential-type, installation
Ship joinery contractors
Millwork installation
Window and door, residential-type, of any material, prefabricated, installation


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
23839Other Building Finishing Contractors TSee industry description for 238390.
238390Other Building Finishing ContractorsThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in building finishing trade work (except drywall, plaster, and insulation work; painting and wall covering work; flooring work; tile and terrazzo work; and finish carpentry work). The work performed may include new work, additions, alterations, maintenance, and repairs.

Illustrative Examples:

Bathtub refinishing, on-site
Fabricating metal cabinets or countertops on site
Closet organizer system installation
Modular furniture system attachment and installation
Concrete coating, glazing, or sealing
Trade show exhibit installation and dismantling
Countertop and cabinet, metal (except residential-type), installation
Waterproofing contractors
Drapery fixture (e.g., hardware, rods, tracks) installation
Window shade and blind installation


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
2389Other Specialty Trade Contractors TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in site preparation activities and in specialized trades (except foundation, structure, and building exterior contractors; building equipment contractors; and building finishing contractors). The specialty trade work performed includes new work, additions, alterations, maintenance, and repairs.
23891Site Preparation Contractors TSee industry description for 238910.
238910Site Preparation ContractorsThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in site preparation activities, such as excavating and grading, demolition of buildings and other structures, and septic system installation. Earthmoving and land clearing for all types of sites (e.g., building, nonbuilding, mining) is included in this industry. Establishments primarily engaged in construction equipment rental with operator (except cranes) are also included.

Illustrative Examples:

Blasting, building demolition
Foundation digging (i.e., excavation)
Concrete breaking and cutting for demolition
Foundation drilling contractors
Cutting new rights of way
Grading construction sites
Demolition, building and structure
Line slashing or cutting (except maintenance)
Dewatering contractors
Septic system contractors
Dirt moving for construction
Trenching (except underwater)
Equipment rental (except crane), construction, with operator
Underground tank (except hazardous) removal
Excavating, earthmoving, or land clearing contractors
Wrecking, building or other structure


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
23899All Other Specialty Trade Contractors TSee industry description for 238990.
238990All Other Specialty Trade ContractorsThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in specialized trades (except foundation, structure, and building exterior contractors; building equipment contractors; building finishing contractors; and site preparation contractors). The specialty trade work performed includes new work, additions, alterations, maintenance, and repairs.

Illustrative Examples:

Billboard erection
Outdoor swimming pool construction
Cleaning building interiors during and immediately after construction
Paver, brick (e.g., driveway, patio, sidewalk), installation
Crane rental with operator
Paving, residential and commercial driveway and parking lot
Sandblasting building exteriors
Fence installation
Scaffold erecting and dismantling
Interlocking brick and block installation
Steeplejack work
Manufactured (mobile) home set up and tie-down work
Driveway paving or sealing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
31-33Manufacturing TThe Sector as a Whole

The Manufacturing sector comprises establishments engaged in the mechanical, physical, or chemical transformation of materials, substances, or components into new products. The assembling of component parts of manufactured products is considered manufacturing, except in cases where the activity is appropriately classified in Sector 23, Construction.

Establishments in the Manufacturing sector are often described as plants, factories, or mills and characteristically use power-driven machines and material handling equipment. However, establishments that transform materials or substances into new products by hand or in the worker's home and those engaged in selling to the general public products made on the same premises from which they are sold, such as bakeries, candy stores, and custom tailors, may also be included in this sector. Manufacturing establishments may process materials or may contract with other establishments to process their materials for them. Both types of establishments are included in manufacturing.

The materials, substances, or components transformed by manufacturing establishments are raw materials that are products of agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining, or quarrying as well as products of other manufacturing establishments. The materials used may be purchased directly from producers, obtained through customary trade channels, or secured without recourse to the market by transferring the product from one establishment to another, under the same ownership.

The new product of a manufacturing establishment may be finished in the sense that it is ready for utilization or consumption, or it may be semi-finished to become an input for an establishment engaged in further manufacturing. For example, the product of the alumina refinery is the input used in the primary production of aluminum; primary aluminum is the input to an aluminum wire drawing plant; and aluminum wire is the input for a fabricated wire product manufacturing establishment.

The subsectors in the Manufacturing sector generally reflect distinct production processes related to material inputs, production equipment, and employee skills. In the machinery area, where assembling is a key activity, parts and accessories for manufactured products are classified in the industry of the finished manufactured item when they are made for separate sale. For example, a replacement refrigerator door would be classified with refrigerators and an attachment for a piece of metalworking machinery would be classified with metalworking machinery. However, components, input from other manufacturing establishments, are classified based on the production function of the component manufacturer. For example, electronic components are classified in Subsector 334, Computer and Electronic Product Manufacturing, and stampings are classified in Subsector 332, Fabricated Metal Product Manufacturing.

Manufacturing establishments often perform one or more activities that are classified outside the Manufacturing sector of NAICS. For instance, almost all manufacturing has some captive research and development or administrative operations, such as accounting, payroll, or management. These captive services are treated the same as captive manufacturing activities. When the services are provided by separate establishments, they are classified in the NAICS sector where such services are primary, not in manufacturing.

The boundaries of manufacturing and the other sectors of the classification system can be somewhat blurry. The establishments in the Manufacturing sector are engaged in the transformation of materials into new products. Their output is a new product. However, the definition of what constitutes a new product can be somewhat subjective. As clarification, the following activities are considered manufacturing in NAICS:
Milk bottling and pasteurizing;
Water bottling and processing;
Fresh fish packaging (oyster shucking,
fish filleting);
Apparel jobbing (assigning materials
to contract factories or shops for
fabrication or other contract operations)
as well as contracting on materials owned by others;
Printing and related activities;
Ready-mix concrete production;
Leather converting;
Grinding lenses to prescription;
Wood preserving;
Electroplating, plating, metal heat
treating, and polishing for the trade;
Lapidary work for the trade;
Fabricating signs and advertising displays;
Rebuilding or remanufacturing
machinery (i.e., automotive parts);
Ship repair and renovation;
Machine shops; and
Tire retreading.

Conversely, there are activities that are sometimes considered manufacturing, but which for NAICS are classified in another sector (i.e., not classified as manufacturing). They include:

1. Logging, classified in Sector 11, Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting, is considered a harvesting operation;
2. Beneficiating ores and other minerals, classified in Sector 21, Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction, is considered part of the activity of mining;
3. Constructing structures and fabricating at the construction site by contractors are classified in Sector 23, Construction;
4. Breaking bulk and redistributing in smaller lots, including packaging, repackaging, or bottling products, such as liquors or chemicals; assembling computers on a custom basis; sorting scrap; mixing paints to customer order; and cutting metals to customer order, classified in Sector 42, Wholesale Trade, or Sector 44-45, Retail Trade, produce a modified version of the same product, not a new product; and
5. Publishing and the combined activity of publishing and printing, classified in Sector 51, Information, transform information into a product for which the value to the consumer lies in the information content, not in the format in which it is distributed (i.e., the book or software compact disc).
311Food Manufacturing TIndustries in the Food Manufacturing subsector transform livestock and agricultural products into products for intermediate or final consumption. The industry groups are distinguished by the raw materials (generally of animal or vegetable origin) processed into food products.

The food products manufactured in these establishments are typically sold to wholesalers or retailers for distribution to consumers, but establishments primarily engaged in retailing bakery and candy products made on the premises not for immediate consumption are included.

Establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing beverages are classified in Subsector 312, Beverage and Tobacco Product Manufacturing.
3111Animal Food Manufacturing TNULL
31111Animal Food Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing food and feed for animals from ingredients, such as grains, oilseed mill products, and meat products.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
311111Dog and Cat Food ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing dog and cat food from ingredients, such as grains, oilseed mill products, and meat products.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
311119Other Animal Food ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing animal food (except dog and cat) from ingredients, such as grains, oilseed mill products, and meat products.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
3112Grain and Oilseed Milling TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in milling flour or meal from grains or vegetables, manufacturing malt, wet milling corn and other vegetables, crushing oilseeds and tree nuts, refining and/or blending vegetable oils, and manufacturing breakfast cereals.
31121Flour Milling and Malt Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) milling flour or meal from grains or vegetables; (2) preparing flour mixes or doughs from flour milled in the same establishment; (3) milling, cleaning, and polishing rice; and (4) manufacturing malt from barley, rye, or other grains.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
311211Flour MillingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) milling flour or meal from grains (except rice) or vegetables and/or (2) milling flour and preparing flour mixes or doughs.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
311212Rice MillingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one of the following: (1) milling rice; (2) cleaning and polishing rice; or (3) milling, cleaning, and polishing rice. The establishments in this industry may package the rice they mill with other ingredients.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
311213Malt ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing malt from barley, rye, or other grains.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
31122Starch and Vegetable Fats and Oils Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) wet milling corn and vegetables; (2) crushing oilseeds and tree nuts; (3) refining and/or blending vegetable oils; (4) manufacturing shortening and margarine; and (5) blending purchased animal fats with vegetable fats.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
311221Wet Corn MillingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in wet milling corn and other vegetables (except to make ethyl alcohol). Examples of products made in these establishments are corn sweeteners, such as glucose, dextrose, and fructose; corn oil; and starches (except laundry).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
311224Soybean and Other Oilseed ProcessingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in crushing oilseeds and tree nuts, such as soybeans, cottonseeds, linseeds, peanuts, and sunflower seeds. Examples of products produced in these establishments are oilseed oils, cakes, meals, and protein isolates and concentrates.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
311225Fats and Oils Refining and BlendingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) manufacturing shortening and margarine from purchased fats and oils; (2) refining and/or blending vegetable, oilseed, and tree nut oils from purchased oils; and (3) blending purchased animal fats with purchased vegetable fats.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
31123Breakfast Cereal Manufacturing TSee industry description for 311230.
311230Breakfast Cereal ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing breakfast cereal foods.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
3113Sugar and Confectionery Product Manufacturing TThis industry group comprises (1) establishments that process agricultural inputs, such as sugarcane, beet, and cacao, to give rise to a new product (sugar or chocolate) and (2) those that begin with sugar and chocolate and process these further.
31131Sugar Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing raw sugar, liquid sugar, and refined sugar from sugarcane, raw cane sugar and sugar beets.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
311313Beet Sugar ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing refined beet sugar from sugar beets.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
311314Cane Sugar ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) processing sugarcane and/or (2) refining cane sugar from raw cane sugar.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
31134Nonchocolate Confectionery Manufacturing TSee industry description for 311340.
311340Nonchocolate Confectionery ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing nonchocolate confectioneries. Included in this industry are establishments primarily engaged in retailing nonchocolate confectionery products not for immediate consumption made on the premises.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
31135Chocolate and Confectionery Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) manufacturing chocolate and chocolate confectioneries from cacao beans or (2) manufacturing chocolate confectioneries from chocolate produced elsewhere. Included in this industry are establishments primarily engaged in retailing chocolate confectionery products not for immediate consumption made on the premises from chocolate made elsewhere.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
311351Chocolate and Confectionery Manufacturing from Cacao BeansThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in shelling, roasting, and grinding cacao beans and making chocolate cacao products and chocolate confectioneries.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
311352Confectionery Manufacturing from Purchased ChocolateThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing chocolate confectioneries from chocolate produced elsewhere. Included in this industry are establishments primarily engaged in retailing chocolate confectionery products not for immediate consumption made on the premises from chocolate made elsewhere.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
3114Fruit and Vegetable Preserving and Specialty Food Manufacturing TThis industry group includes (1) establishments that freeze food and (2) those that use preservation processes, such as pickling, canning, and dehydrating. Both types begin their production process with inputs of vegetable or animal origin.
31141Frozen Food Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing frozen fruit, frozen juices, frozen vegetables, and frozen specialty foods (except seafood), such as frozen dinners, entrees, and side dishes; frozen pizza; frozen whipped toppings; and frozen waffles, pancakes, and french toast.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
311411Frozen Fruit, Juice, and Vegetable ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing frozen fruits; frozen vegetables; and frozen fruit juices, ades, drinks, cocktail mixes and concentrates.

Cross-References.
311412Frozen Specialty Food ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing frozen specialty foods (except seafood), such as frozen dinners, entrees, and side dishes; frozen pizza; frozen whipped topping; and frozen waffles, pancakes, and french toast.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
31142Fruit and Vegetable Canning, Pickling, and Drying TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing canned, pickled, and dried fruits, vegetables, and specialty foods. Establishments in this industry may package the dried or dehydrated ingredients they make with other purchased ingredients. Examples of products made by these establishments are canned juices; canned baby foods; canned soups (except seafood); canned dry beans; canned tomato-based sauces, such as catsup, salsa, chili sauce, spaghetti sauce, barbeque sauce, and tomato paste; pickles and relishes; jams and jellies; dried soup mixes and bouillon; and sauerkraut.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
311421Fruit and Vegetable CanningThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing canned, pickled, and brined fruits and vegetables. Examples of products made in these establishments are canned juices; canned jams and jellies; canned tomato-based sauces, such as catsup, salsa, chili sauce, spaghetti sauce, barbeque sauce, and tomato paste; and pickles, relishes, and sauerkraut.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
311422Specialty CanningThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing canned specialty foods. Examples of products made in these establishments are canned baby food, canned baked beans, canned soups (except seafood), canned spaghetti, and other canned nationality foods.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
311423Dried and Dehydrated Food ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) drying (including freeze-dried) and/or dehydrating fruits, vegetables, and soup mixes and bouillon and/or (2) drying and/or dehydrating ingredients and packaging them with other purchased ingredients, such as rice and dry pasta.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
3115Dairy Product Manufacturing TThis industry group comprises establishments that manufacture dairy products from raw milk, processed milk, and dairy substitutes.
31151Dairy Product (except Frozen) Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) manufacturing dairy products (except frozen) from raw milk and/or processed milk products; (2) manufacturing dairy substitutes (except frozen) from soybeans and other nondairy substances; and (3) manufacturing dry, condensed, concentrated, and evaporated dairy and dairy substitute products.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
311511Fluid Milk ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) manufacturing processed milk products, such as pasteurized milk or cream and sour cream and/or (2) manufacturing fluid milk dairy substitutes from soybeans and other nondairy substances.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
311512Creamery Butter ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing creamery butter from milk and/or processed milk products.

Cross-References.
311513Cheese ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) manufacturing cheese products (except cottage cheese) from raw milk and/or processed milk products and/or (2) manufacturing cheese substitutes from soybean and other nondairy substances.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
311514Dry, Condensed, and Evaporated Dairy Product ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing dry, condensed, and evaporated milk and dairy substitute products.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
31152Ice Cream and Frozen Dessert Manufacturing TSee industry description for 311520.
311520Ice Cream and Frozen Dessert ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing ice cream, frozen yogurts, frozen ices, sherbets, frozen tofu, and other frozen desserts (except bakery products).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
3116Animal Slaughtering and Processing TNULL
31161Animal Slaughtering and Processing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) slaughtering animals; (2) preparing processed meats and meat byproducts; and (3) rendering and/or refining animal fat, bones, and meat scraps. This industry includes establishments primarily engaged in assembly cutting and packing of meats (i.e., boxed meats) from purchased carcasses.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
311611Animal (except Poultry) SlaughteringThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in slaughtering animals (except poultry and small game). Establishments that slaughter and prepare meats are included in this industry.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
311612Meat Processed from CarcassesThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in processing or preserving meat and meat byproducts (except poultry and small game) from purchased meats. This industry includes establishments primarily engaged in assembly cutting and packing of meats (i.e., boxed meats) from purchased meats.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
311613Rendering and Meat Byproduct ProcessingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in rendering animal fat, bones, and meat scraps.

Cross-References.
311615Poultry ProcessingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) slaughtering poultry and small game and/or (2) preparing processed poultry and small game meat and meat byproducts.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
3117Seafood Product Preparation and Packaging TNULL
31171Seafood Product Preparation and Packaging TSee industry description for 311710.
311710Seafood Product Preparation and PackagingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) canning seafood (including soup); (2) smoking, salting, and drying seafood; (3) eviscerating fresh fish by removing heads, fins, scales, bones, and entrails; (4) shucking and packing fresh shellfish; (5) processing marine fats and oils; and (6) freezing seafood. Establishments known as "floating factory ships" that are engaged in the gathering and processing of seafood into canned seafood products are included in this industry.
3118Bakeries and Tortilla Manufacturing TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in one of the following: (1) manufacturing fresh and frozen bread and other bakery products; (2) retailing bread and other bakery products not for immediate consumption made on the premises from flour, not from prepared dough; (3) manufacturing cookies, crackers, and dry pasta; (4) manufacturing prepared flour mixes or dough from flour ground elsewhere; or (5) manufacturing tortillas.
31181Bread and Bakery Product Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing fresh and frozen bread and other bakery products.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
311811Retail BakeriesThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing bread and other bakery products not for immediate consumption made on the premises from flour, not from prepared dough.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
311812Commercial BakeriesThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing fresh and frozen bread and bread-type rolls and other fresh bakery (except cookies and crackers) products.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
311813Frozen Cakes, Pies, and Other Pastries ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing frozen bakery products (except bread), such as cakes, pies, and doughnuts.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
31182Cookie, Cracker, and Pasta Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one of the following: (1) manufacturing cookies and crackers; (2) preparing flour and dough mixes and dough from flour ground elsewhere; and (3) manufacturing dry pasta. The establishments in this industry may package the dry pasta they manufacture with other ingredients.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
311821Cookie and Cracker ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing cookies, crackers, and other products, such as ice cream cones.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
311824Dry Pasta, Dough, and Flour Mixes Manufacturing from Purchased FlourThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) manufacturing dry pasta and/or (2) manufacturing prepared flour mixes or dough from flour ground elsewhere. The establishments in this industry may package the dry pasta they manufacture with other ingredients.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
31183Tortilla Manufacturing TSee industry description for 311830.
311830Tortilla ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing tortillas.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
3119Other Food Manufacturing TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing food (except animal food; grain and oilseed milling; sugar and confectionery products; preserved fruits, vegetables, and specialty foods; dairy products; meat products; seafood products; and bakery products and tortillas). This industry group includes industries with different production processes, such as snack food manufacturing; coffee and tea manufacturing; concentrate, syrup, condiment, and spice manufacturing; and, in general, an entire range of other miscellaneous food product manufacturing.
31191Snack Food Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) salting, roasting, drying, cooking, or canning nuts; (2) processing grains or seeds into snacks; (3) manufacturing peanut butter; and (4) manufacturing potato chips, corn chips, popped popcorn, pretzels (except soft), pork rinds, and similar snacks.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
311911Roasted Nuts and Peanut Butter ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) salting, roasting, drying, cooking, or canning nuts; (2) processing grains or seeds into snacks; and (3) manufacturing peanut butter.

Cross-References.
311919Other Snack Food ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing snack foods (except roasted nuts and peanut butter).

Illustrative Examples:

Corn chips and related corn snacks manufacturing
Popped popcorn (except candy-covered) manufacturing
Pork rinds manufacturing
Potato chips manufacturing
Pretzels (except soft) manufacturing
Tortilla chips manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
31192Coffee and Tea Manufacturing TSee industry description for 311920.
311920Coffee and Tea ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) roasting coffee; (2) manufacturing coffee and tea concentrates (including instant and freeze-dried); (3) blending tea; (4) manufacturing herbal tea; and (5) manufacturing coffee extracts, flavorings, and syrups.

Cross-References.
31193Flavoring Syrup and Concentrate Manufacturing TSee industry description for 311930.
311930Flavoring Syrup and Concentrate ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing flavoring syrup drink concentrates and related products for soda fountain use or for the manufacture of soft drinks.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
31194Seasoning and Dressing Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) manufacturing dressings and sauces, such as mayonnaise, salad dressing, vinegar, mustard, horseradish, soy sauce, tarter sauce, Worcestershire sauce, and other prepared sauces (except tomato-based and gravies); (2) manufacturing spices, table salt, seasoning, and flavoring extracts (except coffee and meat), and natural food colorings; and (3) manufacturing dry mix food preparations, such as salad dressing mixes, gravy and sauce mixes, frosting mixes, and other dry mix preparations.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
311941Mayonnaise, Dressing, and Other Prepared Sauce ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing mayonnaise, salad dressing, vinegar, mustard, horseradish, soy sauce, tarter sauce, Worcestershire sauce, and other prepared sauces (except tomato-based and gravy).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
311942Spice and Extract ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) manufacturing spices, table salt, seasonings, flavoring extracts (except coffee and meat), and natural food colorings and/or (2) manufacturing dry mix food preparations, such as salad dressing mixes, gravy and sauce mixes, frosting mixes, and other dry mix preparations.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
31199All Other Food Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing food (except animal food; grain and oilseed milling; sugar and confectionery products; preserved fruits, vegetables, and specialty foods; dairy products; meat products; seafood products; baked goods and tortillas; snack foods; coffee and tea; flavoring syrups and concentrates; seasonings; and dressings). Included in this industry are establishments primarily engaged in mixing purchased dried and/or dehydrated ingredients, including those mixing purchased dried and/or dehydrated ingredients for soup mixes and bouillon.

Illustrative Examples:

Baking powder manufacturing
Cut or peeled fresh vegetables manufacturing
Dessert puddings manufacturing
Egg substitutes manufacturing
Sweetening syrups (except pure maple) manufacturing
Fresh pasta manufacturing
Fresh pizza manufacturing
Honey processing
Popcorn (except popped) manufacturing
Powdered drink mixes (except chocolate, coffee, tea, or milk based) manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
311991Perishable Prepared Food ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing perishable prepared foods, such as salads, sandwiches, prepared meals, fresh pizza, fresh pasta, and peeled or cut vegetables.
311999All Other Miscellaneous Food ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing food (except animal food; grain and oilseed milling; sugar and confectionery products; preserved fruits, vegetables, and specialties; dairy products; meat products; seafood products; bakeries and tortillas; snack foods; coffee and tea; flavoring syrups and concentrates; seasonings and dressings; and perishable prepared food). Included in this industry are establishments primarily engaged in mixing purchased dried and/or dehydrated ingredients including those mixing purchased dried and/or dehydrated ingredients for soup mixes and bouillon.

Illustrative Examples:

Baking powder manufacturing
Cake frosting, prepared, manufacturing
Dessert puddings manufacturing
Sweetening syrups (except pure maple) manufacturing
Egg substitutes manufacturing
Gelatin dessert preparations manufacturing
Honey processing
Powdered drink mixes (except chocolate, coffee, tea, or milk based) manufacturing
Popcorn (except popped) manufacturing
Yeast manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
312Beverage and Tobacco Product Manufacturing TIndustries in the Beverage and Tobacco Product Manufacturing subsector manufacture beverages and tobacco products. The Beverage Manufacturing industry group includes three types of establishments: (1) those that manufacture nonalcoholic beverages; (2) those that manufacture alcoholic beverages through the fermentation process; and (3) those that produce distilled alcoholic beverages. Ice manufacturing, while not a beverage, is included with nonalcoholic beverage manufacturing because it uses the same production process as water purification.

In the case of activities related to the manufacture of beverages, the structure follows the defined production processes. Brandy, a distilled beverage, is not placed under distillery product manufacturing, but rather under winery product manufacturing since the production process used in the manufacturing of alcoholic grape-based beverages produces both wines (fermented beverage) and brandies (distilled beverage).

The Tobacco Manufacturing industry group includes two types of establishments: (1) those engaged in redrying and stemming tobacco and (2) those that manufacture tobacco products, such as cigarettes and cigars.
3121Beverage Manufacturing TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing soft drinks and ice; purifying and bottling water; and manufacturing brewery, winery, and distillery products.
31211Soft Drink and Ice Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) manufacturing soft drinks; (2) manufacturing ice; and (3) purifying and bottling water.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
312111Soft Drink ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing soft drinks and artificially carbonated waters.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
312112Bottled Water ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in purifying and bottling water (including naturally carbonated).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
312113Ice ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing ice.

Cross-References.
31212Breweries TSee industry description for 312120.
312120BreweriesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in brewing beer, ale, lager, malt liquors, and nonalcoholic beer.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
31213Wineries TSee industry description for 312130.
312130WineriesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) growing grapes and manufacturing wines and brandies; (2) manufacturing wines and brandies from grapes and other fruits grown elsewhere; and (3) blending wines and brandies.

Cross-References.
31214Distilleries TSee industry description for 312140.
312140DistilleriesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) distilling potable liquors (except brandies); (2) distilling and blending liquors; and (3) blending and mixing liquors and other ingredients.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
3122Tobacco Manufacturing TNULL
31223Tobacco ManufacturingSee industry description for 312230.
312230Tobacco ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) stemming and redrying tobacco and/or (2) manufacturing cigarettes or other tobacco products.

Illustrative Examples:

Chewing tobacco manufacturing
Cigar manufacturing
Cigarettes manufacturing (except electronic)
Snuff manufacturing
Prepared pipe tobacco manufacturing
Tobacco leaf processing and aging


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
313Textile Mills TIndustries in the Textile Mills subsector group establishments that transform a basic fiber (natural or synthetic) into a product, such as yarn or fabric that is further manufactured into usable items, such as apparel, sheets, towels, and textile bags for individual or industrial consumption. The further manufacturing may be performed in the same establishment and classified in this subsector, or it may be performed at a separate establishment and be classified elsewhere in manufacturing.

The main processes in this subsector include preparation and spinning of fiber, knitting or weaving of fabric, and the finishing of the textile. The NAICS structure follows and captures this process flow. Major industries in this flow, such as preparation of fibers, weaving of fabric, knitting of fabric, and fiber and fabric finishing, are uniquely identified. Texturizing, throwing, twisting, and winding of yarn contain aspects of both fiber preparation and fiber finishing and are classified with preparation of fibers rather than with finishing of fibers.

NAICS separates the manufacturing of primary textiles and the manufacturing of textile products (except apparel) produced from purchased primary textiles, such as fabric. The manufacturing of textile products (except apparel) from purchased fabric is classified in Subsector 314, Textile Product Mills, and apparel from purchased fabric is classified in Subsector 315, Apparel Manufacturing.

Excluded from this subsector are establishments that weave or knit fabric and make garments. These establishments are included in Subsector 315, Apparel Manufacturing.
3131Fiber, Yarn, and Thread Mills TNULL
31311Fiber, Yarn, and Thread Mills TSee industry description for 313110.
313110Fiber, Yarn, and Thread MillsThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) spinning yarn; (2) manufacturing thread of any fiber; (3) texturizing, throwing, twisting, and winding purchased yarn or manmade fiber filaments; and (4) producing hemp yarn and further processing into rope or bags.

Cross-References.
3132Fabric Mills TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in one of the following: (1) weaving broadwoven fabrics and felts (except tire fabrics and rugs); (2) weaving or braiding narrow fabrics; (3) making fabric-covered elastic yarn and thread; (4) manufacturing Schiffli machine embroideries; (5) manufacturing nonwoven fabrics and felts; (6) knitting weft (i.e., circular) and warp (i.e., flat) fabric; (7) knitting and finishing weft and warp fabric; (8) manufacturing lace; or (9) manufacturing, dyeing, and finishing lace and lace goods.
31321Broadwoven Fabric Mills TSee industry description for 313210.
313210Broadwoven Fabric MillsThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in weaving broadwoven fabrics and felts (except tire fabrics and rugs). Establishments in this industry may weave only, weave and finish, or weave, finish, and further fabricate fabric products.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
31322Narrow Fabric Mills and Schiffli Machine Embroidery TSee industry description for 313220.
313220Narrow Fabric Mills and Schiffli Machine EmbroideryThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) weaving or braiding narrow fabrics in their final form or initially made in wider widths that are specially constructed for narrower widths; (2) making fabric-covered elastic yarn and thread; and (3) manufacturing Schiffli machine embroideries. Establishments in this industry may weave only; weave and finish; or weave, finish, and further fabricate fabric products.
31323Nonwoven Fabric Mills TSee industry description for 313230.
313230Nonwoven Fabric MillsThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing nonwoven fabrics and felts. Processes used include bonding and/or interlocking fibers by mechanical, chemical, thermal, or solvent means, or by combinations thereof.
31324Knit Fabric Mills TSee industry description for 313240.
313240Knit Fabric MillsThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one of the following: (1) knitting weft (i.e., circular) and warp (i.e., flat) fabric; (2) knitting and finishing weft and warp fabric; (3) manufacturing lace; or (4) manufacturing, dyeing, and finishing lace and lace goods. Establishments in this industry may knit only; knit and finish; or knit, finish, and further fabricate fabric products (except apparel).

Cross-References.
3133Textile and Fabric Finishing and Fabric Coating Mills TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in one of the following: (1) finishing textiles, fabrics, and apparel; (2) converting fabrics and textiles by buying fabric goods in the grey, having them finished on contract, and selling them at wholesale; or (3) coating, laminating, varnishing, waxing, and rubberizing textiles and apparel.
31331Textile and Fabric Finishing Mills TSee industry description for 313310.
313310Textile and Fabric Finishing MillsThis industry comprises (1) establishments primarily engaged in finishing textiles, fabrics, and apparel and (2) establishments of converters who buy fabric goods in the grey, have them finished on contract, and sell at wholesale. Finishing operations include: bleaching, dyeing, printing (e.g., roller, screen, flock, plisse), stonewashing, and other mechanical finishing, such as preshrinking, shrinking, sponging, calendering, mercerizing, and napping; as well as cleaning, scouring, and the preparation of natural fibers and raw stock.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
31332Fabric Coating Mills TSee industry description for 313320.
313320Fabric Coating MillsThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in coating, laminating, varnishing, waxing, and rubberizing textiles and apparel.

Cross-References.
314Textile Product Mills TIndustries in the Textile Product Mills subsector group establishments that make textile products (except apparel). With a few exceptions, processes used by these establishments are generally cut and sew (i.e., purchasing fabric and cutting and sewing to make nonapparel textile products, such as sheets and towels).
3141Textile Furnishings Mills TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) manufacturing woven, tufted, and other carpets and rugs and (2) manufacturing household textile products from purchased materials. The household textile products may be made on a stock or custom basis for sale to individual retail customers.
31411Carpet and Rug Mills TSee industry description for 314110.
314110Carpet and Rug MillsThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) manufacturing woven, tufted, and other carpets and rugs, such as art squares, floor mattings, needlepunch carpeting, and door mats and mattings, from textile materials or from twisted paper, grasses, reeds, sisal, jute, or rags and/or (2) finishing carpets and rugs.
31412Curtain and Linen Mills TSee industry description for 314120.
314120Curtain and Linen MillsThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing household textile products, such as curtains, draperies, linens, bedspreads, sheets, tablecloths, towels, and shower curtains, from purchased materials. The household textile products may be made on a stock or custom basis for sale to individual retail customers.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
3149Other Textile Product Mills TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in making textile products (except carpets and rugs, curtains and draperies, and other household textile products) from purchased materials.
31491Textile Bag and Canvas Mills TSee industry description for 314910.
314910Textile Bag and Canvas MillsThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing textile bags or other canvas and canvas-like products, such as awnings, sails, tarpaulins, and tents from purchased textile fabrics or yarns.

Illustrative Examples:

Covers (e.g., boat, swimming pool, truck) made from purchased fabrics
Laundry bags made from purchased woven or knitted materials
Seed bags made from purchased woven or knitted materials
Textile bags made from purchased woven or knitted materials


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
31499All Other Textile Product Mills TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing nonapparel textile products (except carpet, rugs, curtains, linens, bags, and canvas products) from purchased materials. This industry includes establishments primarily engaged in decorative stitching such as embroidery or other art needlework on textile products, including apparel.

Illustrative Examples:

Batts and batting (except nonwoven fabrics) manufacturing
Carpet cutting and binding
Diapers (except disposable) made from purchased materials
Embroidering on textile products or apparel for the trade
Fishing nets made from purchased materials
Ropes (except wire rope) manufacturing
Sleeping bags manufacturing
Tire cord and fabric, all materials, manufacturing
Twines manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
314994Rope, Cordage, Twine, Tire Cord, and Tire Fabric MillsThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) manufacturing rope, cable, cordage, twine, and related products from all materials (e.g., abaca, sisal, henequen, cotton, paper, jute, flax, manmade fibers including glass) and/or (2) manufacturing cord and fabric of polyester, rayon, cotton, glass, steel, or other materials for use in reinforcing rubber tires, industrial belting, and similar uses.

Cross-References.
314999All Other Miscellaneous Textile Product MillsThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing textile products (except carpets and rugs; curtains and linens; textile bags and canvas products; rope, cordage, and twine; and tire cords and tire fabrics) from purchased materials. These establishments may further embellish the textile products they manufacture with decorative stitching. Establishments primarily engaged in adding decorative stitching such as embroidery or other art needlework on textile products, including apparel, on a contract or fee basis for the trade, are included in this industry.

Illustrative Examples:

Batts and batting (except nonwoven fabrics) manufacturing
Embroidering on textile products or apparel for the trade
Fishing nets made from purchased materials
Carpet cutting and binding
Sleeping bags manufacturing
Diapers (except disposable) made from purchased materials
Textile fire hoses made from purchased materials
Dust cloths made from purchased fabric
Weatherstripping made from purchased textiles


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
315Apparel Manufacturing TIndustries in the Apparel Manufacturing subsector group establishments with two distinct manufacturing processes: (1) cut and sew (i.e., purchasing fabric and cutting and sewing to make a garment) and (2) the manufacture of garments in establishments that first knit fabric and then cut and sew the fabric into a garment. The Apparel Manufacturing subsector includes a diverse range of establishments manufacturing full lines of ready-to-wear apparel and custom apparel: apparel contractors, performing cutting or sewing operations on materials owned by others; jobbers, performing entrepreneurial functions involved in apparel manufacturing; and tailors, manufacturing custom garments for individual clients. Knitting fabric, when done alone, is classified in the Textile Mills subsector, but when knitting is combined with the production of complete garments, the activity is classified in the Apparel Manufacturing subsector.
3151Apparel Knitting Mills TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in knitting apparel or knitting fabric and then manufacturing apparel. This industry group includes jobbers performing entrepreneurial functions involved in knitting apparel and accessories. Knitting fabric, without manufacturing apparel, is classified in Subsector 313, Textile Mills.
31511Hosiery and Sock Mills TSee industry description for 315110.
315110Hosiery and Sock MillsThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in knitting or knitting and finishing hosiery and socks.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
31519Other Apparel Knitting Mills TSee industry description for 315190.
315190Other Apparel Knitting MillsThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one of the following: (1) knitting underwear, outerwear, and/or nightwear; (2) knitting fabric and manufacturing underwear, outerwear, and/or nightwear; or (3) knitting, manufacturing, and finishing knit underwear, outerwear, and/or nightwear.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
3152Cut and Sew Apparel Manufacturing TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing cut and sew apparel from woven fabric or purchased knit fabric. Included in this industry group is a diverse range of establishments manufacturing full lines of ready-to-wear apparel and custom apparel: apparel contractors, performing cutting or sewing operations on materials owned by others; jobbers, performing entrepreneurial functions involved in apparel manufacturing; and tailors, manufacturing custom garments for individual clients. Establishments weaving or knitting fabric, without manufacturing apparel, are classified in Subsector 313, Textile Mills.
31521Cut and Sew Apparel ContractorsSee industry description for 315210.
315210Cut and Sew Apparel ContractorsThis industry comprises establishments commonly referred to as contractors primarily engaged in (1) cutting materials owned by others for apparel and accessories and/or (2) sewing materials owned by others for apparel and accessories.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
31522Men’s and Boys’ Cut and Sew Apparel ManufacturingSee industry description for 315220.
315220Men’s and Boys’ Cut and Sew Apparel ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing men's and boys' cut and sew apparel from purchased fabric. Men's and boys' clothing jobbers, who perform entrepreneurial functions involved in apparel manufacture, including buying raw materials, designing and preparing samples, arranging for apparel to be made from their materials, and marketing finished apparel, are included.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
31524Women’s, Girls’, and Infants’ Cut and Sew Apparel ManufacturingSee industry description for 315240.
315240Women’s, Girls’, and Infants’ Cut and Sew Apparel ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing women's, girls', and infants’ apparel from purchased fabric. Women's, girls', and infants’ clothing jobbers, who perform entrepreneurial functions involved in apparel manufacture, including buying raw materials, designing and preparing samples, arranging for apparel to be made from their materials, and marketing finished apparel, are included.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
31528Other Cut and Sew Apparel ManufacturingSee industry description for 315280.
315280Other Cut and Sew Apparel ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing cut and sew apparel from purchased fabric (except men's, boys', women's, girls', and infants’ apparel). Clothing jobbers for these products, who perform entrepreneurial functions involved in apparel manufacture, including buying raw materials, designing and preparing samples, arranging for apparel to be made from their materials, and marketing finished apparel, are included. Examples of products made by these establishments are fur or leather apparel, sheep-lined clothing, team athletic uniforms, band uniforms, academic caps and gowns, clerical vestments, and costumes.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
3159Apparel Accessories and Other Apparel Manufacturing TNULL
31599Apparel Accessories and Other Apparel Manufacturing TSee industry description for 315990.
315990Apparel Accessories and Other Apparel ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing apparel and accessories (except apparel knitting mills, cut and sew apparel contractors, men's and boys' cut and sew apparel, women’s, girls', and infants’ cut and sew apparel, and other cut and sew apparel). Jobbers, who perform entrepreneurial functions involved in apparel accessories manufacture, including buying raw materials, designing and preparing samples, arranging for apparel accessories to be made from their materials, and marketing finished apparel accessories, are included. Examples of products made by these establishments are belts, caps, gloves (except medical, sporting, safety), hats, and neckties.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
316Leather and Allied Product Manufacturing TEstablishments in the Leather and Allied Product Manufacturing subsector transform hides into leather by tanning or curing and fabricating the leather into products for final consumption. This subsector also includes the manufacture of similar products from other materials, including products (except apparel) made from "leather substitutes," such as rubber, plastics, or textiles. Rubber footwear, textile luggage, and plastics purses or wallets are examples of "leather substitute" products included in this subsector. The products made from leather substitutes are included in this subsector because they are made in similar ways leather products are made (e.g., luggage). They are made in the same establishments, so it is not practical to separate them.

The inclusion of leather and hide tanning and finishing in this subsector is partly because it is a relatively small industry that has few close neighbors as a production process, partly because leather is an input to some of the other products classified in this subsector, and partly for historical reasons.
3161Leather and Hide Tanning and Finishing TNULL
31611Leather and Hide Tanning and Finishing TSee industry description for 316110.
316110Leather and Hide Tanning and FinishingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) tanning, currying, and finishing hides and skins; (2) having others process hides and skins on a contract basis; and (3) dyeing or dressing furs.
3162Footwear Manufacturing TNULL
31621Footwear Manufacturing TSee industry description for 316210.
316210Footwear ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing footwear (except orthopedic extension footwear).

Illustrative Examples:

Athletic shoes manufacturing
Ballet slippers manufacturing
Cleated athletic shoes manufacturing
Shoes, children's and infants’ (except orthopedic extension), manufacturing
Shoes, men’s (except orthopedic extension), manufacturing
Shoes, women’s (except orthopedic extension), manufacturing


Cross-References.
3169Other Leather and Allied Product Manufacturing TNULL
31699Other Leather and Allied Product Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing leather products (except footwear and apparel) from purchased leather or leather substitutes (e.g., fabric, plastics).

Illustrative Examples:

Billfolds, all materials, manufacturing
Boot and shoe cut stock and findings, leather, manufacturing
Dog furnishings (e.g., collars, leashes, harnesses, muzzles), manufacturing
Luggage, all materials, manufacturing
Purses, women's, all materials (except metal), manufacturing
Shoe soles, leather, manufacturing
Toilet kits and cases (except metal) manufacturing
Watch bands (except metal) manufacturing
Welders' jackets, leggings, and sleeves, leather, manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
316992Women's Handbag and Purse ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing women's handbags and purses of any material (except precious metal).

Cross-References.
316998All Other Leather Good and Allied Product ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing leather products (except footwear, handbags, purses, and apparel) from purchased leather or leather substitutes (e.g., fabric, plastics).

Illustrative Examples:

Billfolds, all materials, manufacturing
Boot and shoe cut stock and findings, leather, manufacturing
Coin purses (except metal) manufacturing
Dog furnishings (e.g., collars, leashes, harnesses, muzzles) manufacturing
Key cases (except metal) manufacturing
Leather belting for machinery (e.g., flat, solid, twisted, built-up) manufacturing
Luggage, all materials, manufacturing
Shoe soles, leather, manufacturing
Toilet kits and cases (except metal) manufacturing
Watch bands (except metal) manufacturing
Welders' jackets, leggings, and sleeves, leather, manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
321Wood Product Manufacturing TEstablishments in the Wood Product Manufacturing subsector manufacture wood products, such as lumber, plywood, veneers, wood containers, wood flooring, wood trusses, manufactured homes (i.e., mobile homes), and prefabricated wood buildings. The production processes of the Wood Product Manufacturing subsector include sawing, planing, shaping, laminating, and assembling wood products starting from logs that are cut into bolts, or lumber that then may be further cut, or shaped by lathes or other shaping tools. The lumber or other transformed wood shapes may also be subsequently planed or smoothed, and assembled into finished products, such as wood containers. The Wood Product Manufacturing subsector includes establishments that make wood products from logs and bolts that are sawed and shaped, and establishments that purchase sawed lumber and make wood products. With the exception of sawmills and wood preservation establishments, the establishments are grouped into industries mainly based on the specific products manufactured.
3211Sawmills and Wood Preservation TNULL
32111Sawmills and Wood Preservation TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) sawing dimension lumber, boards, beams, timber, poles, ties, shingles, shakes, siding, and wood chips from logs or bolts; (2) sawing round wood poles, pilings, and posts and treating them with preservatives; and (3) treating wood sawed, planed, or shaped in other establishments with creosote or other preservatives to prevent decay and to protect against fire and insects. Sawmills may plane the rough lumber that they make with a planing machine to achieve smoothness and uniformity of size.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
321113SawmillsThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in sawing dimension lumber, boards, beams, timbers, poles, ties, shingles, shakes, siding, and wood chips from logs or bolts. Sawmills may plane the rough lumber that they make with a planing machine to achieve smoothness and uniformity of size.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
321114Wood PreservationThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) treating wood sawed, planed, or shaped in other establishments with creosote or other preservatives, such as alkaline copper quat, copper azole, and sodium borates, to prevent decay and to protect against fire and insects and/or (2) sawing round wood poles, pilings, and posts and treating them with preservatives.

Cross-References.
3212Veneer, Plywood, and Engineered Wood Product Manufacturing TNULL
32121Veneer, Plywood, and Engineered Wood Product Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) manufacturing veneer and/or plywood; (2) manufacturing engineered wood members; and (3) manufacturing reconstituted wood products. This industry includes manufacturing plywood from veneer made in the same establishment or from veneer made in other establishments, and manufacturing plywood faced with nonwood materials, such as plastics or metal.

Illustrative Examples:

Fabricated structural wood members manufacturing
Laminated structural wood members manufacturing
Medium density fiberboard (MDF) manufacturing
Oriented strandboard (OSB) manufacturing
Particleboard manufacturing
Plywood manufacturing
Reconstituted wood sheets and boards manufacturing
Roof trusses, wood, manufacturing
Veneer mills
Waferboard manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
321211Hardwood Veneer and Plywood ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing hardwood veneer and/or hardwood plywood.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
321212Softwood Veneer and Plywood ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing softwood veneer and/or softwood plywood.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
321213Engineered Wood Member (except Truss) ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing fabricated or laminated wood arches and/or other fabricated or laminated wood structural members.

Illustrative Examples:

Finger joint lumber manufacturing
I-joists, wood, fabricating
Laminated veneer lumber (LVL) manufacturing
Parallel strand lumber manufacturing
Timbers, structural, glue laminated or pre-engineered wood, manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
321214Truss ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing laminated or fabricated wood roof and floor trusses.

Cross-References.
321219Reconstituted Wood Product ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing reconstituted wood sheets and boards.

Illustrative Examples:

Medium density fiberboard (MDF) manufacturing
Oriented strandboard (OSB) manufacturing
Particleboard manufacturing
Reconstituted wood sheets and boards manufacturing
Waferboard manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
3219Other Wood Product Manufacturing TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing wood products (except establishments operating sawmills and wood preservation facilities; and establishments manufacturing veneer, plywood, or engineered wood products).
32191Millwork TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing hardwood and softwood cut stock and dimension stock (i.e., shapes); wood windows and wood doors; and other millwork including wood flooring. Dimension stock or cut stock is defined as lumber and worked wood products cut or shaped to specialized sizes. These establishments generally use woodworking machinery, such as jointers, planers, lathes, and routers to shape wood.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
321911Wood Window and Door ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing window and door units, sash, window and door frames, and doors from wood or wood clad with metal or plastics.

Cross-References.
321912Cut Stock, Resawing Lumber, and PlaningThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) manufacturing dimension lumber from purchased lumber; (2) manufacturing dimension stock (i.e., shapes) or cut stock; (3) resawing the output of sawmills; and (4) planing purchased lumber. These establishments generally use woodworking machinery, such as jointers, planers, lathes, and routers to shape wood.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
321918Other Millwork (including Flooring)This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing millwork (except wood windows, wood doors, and cut stock).

Illustrative Examples:

Clear and finger joint wood moldings manufacturing
Decorative wood moldings (e.g., base, chair rail, crown, shoe) manufacturing
Ornamental woodwork (e.g., cornices, mantel) manufacturing
Planing mills, millwork
Stairwork (e.g., newel posts, railings, stairs, staircases), wood, manufacturing
Wood flooring manufacturing
Wood shutters manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
32192Wood Container and Pallet Manufacturing TSee industry description for 321920.
321920Wood Container and Pallet ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing wood pallets, wood box shook, wood boxes, other wood containers, and wood parts for pallets and containers.

Cross-References.
32199All Other Wood Product Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing wood products (except establishments operating sawmills and wood preservation facilities; and establishments manufacturing veneer, plywood, engineered wood products, millwork, wood containers, or pallets).

Illustrative Examples:

Mobile homes manufacturing
Panels, prefabricated wood building, manufacturing
Prefabricated wood buildings manufacturing
Sections, prefabricated wood building, manufacturing
Wood dowels manufacturing
Wood handles (e.g., broom, handtool, mop) manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
321991Manufactured Home (Mobile Home) ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in making manufactured homes (i.e., mobile homes) and nonresidential mobile buildings. Manufactured homes are designed to accept permanent water, sewer, and utility connections and although equipped with wheels, they are not intended for regular highway movement.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
321992Prefabricated Wood Building ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing prefabricated wood buildings and wood sections and panels for prefabricated wood buildings.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
321999All Other Miscellaneous Wood Product ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing wood products (except establishments operating sawmills and preservation facilities; establishments manufacturing veneer, engineered wood products, millwork, wood containers, pallets, and wood container parts; and establishments making manufactured homes (i.e., mobile homes) and prefabricated buildings and components).

Illustrative Examples:

Cabinets (i.e., housings), wood (e.g., sewing machines, stereo, television), manufacturing
Cork products (except gaskets) manufacturing
Kiln drying lumber
Shoe trees manufacturing
Wood dowels manufacturing
Wood extension ladders manufacturing
Wood handles (e.g., broom, handtool, mop), manufacturing
Wood kitchenware manufacturing
Wood stepladders manufacturing
Wood toilet seats manufacturing
Wood toothpicks manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
322Paper Manufacturing TIndustries in the Paper Manufacturing subsector make pulp, paper, or converted paper products. The manufacturing of these products is grouped together because they constitute a series of vertically connected processes. More than one is often carried out in a single establishment. There are essentially three activities. The manufacturing of pulp involves separating the cellulose fibers from other impurities in wood or used paper. The manufacturing of paper involves matting these fibers into a sheet. The manufacturing of converted paper products involves converting paper and other materials by various cutting and shaping techniques and includes coating and laminating activities.

The Paper Manufacturing subsector is subdivided into two industry groups, the first for the manufacturing of pulp and paper and the second for the manufacturing of converted paper products. Paper making is treated as the core activity of the subsector. Therefore, any establishment that makes paper (including paperboard), either alone or in combination with pulp manufacturing or paper converting, is classified as a paper or paperboard mill. Establishments that make pulp without making paper are classified as pulp mills. Pulp mills, paper mills and paperboard mills comprise the first industry group.

Establishments that make products from purchased paper and other materials make up the second industry group, Converted Paper Product Manufacturing. This general activity is then subdivided based, for the most part, on process distinctions. Paperboard container manufacturing uses corrugating, cutting, and shaping machinery to form paperboard into containers. Paper bag and coated and treated paper manufacturing establishments cut and coat paper and foil. Stationery product manufacturing establishments make a variety of paper products used for writing, filing, and similar applications. Other converted paper product manufacturing includes, in particular, the conversion of sanitary paper stock into such things as tissue paper and disposable diapers.

An important process used in the Paper Bag and Coated and Treated Paper Manufacturing industry is lamination, often combined with coating. Lamination and coating make a composite material with improved properties of strength, impermeability, and so on. The laminated materials may be paper, metal foil, or plastics film. While paper is often one of the components, it is not always. Lamination of plastics film to plastics film is classified in Subsector 326, Plastics and Rubber Products Manufacturing, because establishments that do this often first make the film. The same situation holds with respect to bags. The manufacturing of bags from plastics only, whether or not laminated, is classified in Subsector 326, Plastics and Rubber Products Manufacturing, but all other bag manufacturing is classified in this subsector.

Excluded from this subsector are photosensitive papers. These papers are chemically treated and are classified in Industry 32599, All Other Chemical Product and Preparation Manufacturing.
3221Pulp, Paper, and Paperboard Mills TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing pulp, paper, or paperboard.
32211Pulp Mills TSee industry description for 322110.
322110Pulp MillsThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing pulp without manufacturing paper or paperboard. The pulp is made by separating the cellulose fibers from the other impurities in wood or other materials, such as used or recycled rags, linters, scrap paper, and straw.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
32212Paper Mills TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing paper from pulp. These establishments may manufacture or purchase pulp. In addition, the establishments may convert the paper they make. The activity of making paper classifies an establishment into this industry regardless of the output.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
322121Paper (except Newsprint) MillsThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing paper (except newsprint and uncoated groundwood paper) from pulp. These establishments may manufacture or purchase pulp. In addition, the establishments may also convert the paper they make.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
322122Newsprint MillsThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing newsprint and uncoated groundwood paper from pulp. These establishments may manufacture or purchase pulp. In addition, the establishments may also convert the paper they make.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
32213Paperboard Mills TSee industry description for 322130.
322130Paperboard MillsThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing paperboard (e.g., can/drum stock, container board, corrugating medium, folding carton stock, linerboard, tube) from pulp. These establishments may manufacture or purchase pulp. In addition, the establishments may also convert the paperboard they make.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
3222Converted Paper Product Manufacturing TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in converting paper or paperboard without manufacturing paper or paperboard.
32221Paperboard Container Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in converting paperboard into containers without manufacturing paperboard. These establishments use corrugating, cutting, and shaping machinery to form paperboard into containers. Products made by these establishments include boxes, corrugated sheets, pads, pallets, paper dishes, and fiber drums and reels.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
322211Corrugated and Solid Fiber Box ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in laminating purchased paper or paperboard into corrugated or solid fiber boxes and related products, such as pads, partitions, pallets, and corrugated paper without manufacturing paperboard. These boxes are generally used for shipping.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
322212Folding Paperboard Box ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in converting paperboard (except corrugated) into folding paperboard boxes without manufacturing paper and paperboard.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
322219Other Paperboard Container ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in converting paperboard into paperboard containers (except corrugated, solid fiber, and folding paperboard boxes) without manufacturing paperboard.

Illustrative Examples:

Fiber cans and drums (i.e., all-fiber, nonfiber ends of any material) made from purchased paperboard
Milk cartons made from purchased paper or paperboard
Sanitary food containers (except folding) made from purchased paper or paperboard
Setup (i.e., not shipped flat) boxes made from purchased paperboard


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
32222Paper Bag and Coated and Treated Paper Manufacturing TSee industry description for 322220.
322220Paper Bag and Coated and Treated Paper ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) cutting and coating paper and paperboard; (2) cutting and laminating paper, paperboard, and other flexible materials (except plastics film to plastics film); (3) manufacturing bags, multiwall bags, sacks of paper, metal foil, coated paper, laminates, or coated combinations of paper and foil with plastics film; (4) manufacturing laminated aluminum and other converted metal foils from purchased foils; and (5) surface coating paper or paperboard.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
32223Stationery Product Manufacturing TSee industry description for 322230.
322230Stationery Product ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in converting paper or paperboard into products used for writing, filing, art work, and similar applications.

Illustrative Examples:

Computer paper, die-cut, made from purchased paper
Die-cut paper products for office use made from purchased paper or paperboard
Envelopes (i.e., mailing, stationery) made from any material
Stationery made from purchased paper
Tablets (e.g., memo, note, writing) made from purchased paper
Tapes (e.g., adding machine, calculator, cash register) made from purchased paper


Cross-References.
32229Other Converted Paper Product Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) converting paper and paperboard into products (except containers, bags, coated and treated paper and paperboard, and stationery products) or (2) converting pulp into pulp products, such as disposable diapers, or molded pulp egg cartons, food trays, and dishes. Processes used include laminating or lining purchased paper or paperboard.

Illustrative Examples:

Crepe paper made from purchased paper
Die-cut paper products (except for office use) made from purchased paper or paperboard
Molded pulp products (e.g., egg cartons, food containers, food trays) manufacturing
Paper novelties made from purchased paper
Sanitary products made from purchased sanitary paper stock


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
322291Sanitary Paper Product ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in converting purchased sanitary paper stock or wadding into sanitary paper products, such as facial tissues, handkerchiefs, table napkins, toilet paper, towels, disposable diapers, sanitary napkins, and tampons.
322299All Other Converted Paper Product ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in converting paper or paperboard into products (except containers, bags, coated and treated paper, stationery products, and sanitary paper products) or converting pulp into pulp products, such as egg cartons, food trays, and other food containers from molded pulp.

Illustrative Examples:

Crepe paper made from purchased paper
Die-cut paper products (except for office use) made from purchased paper or paperboard
Molded pulp products (e.g., egg cartons, food containers, food trays) manufacturing
Paper novelties made from purchased paper


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
323Printing and Related Support Activities TIndustries in the Printing and Related Support Activities subsector print products, such as newspapers, books, labels, business cards, stationery, business forms, and other materials, and perform support activities, such as data imaging, platemaking services, and bookbinding. The support activities included here are an integral part of the printing industry, and a product (a printing plate, a bound book, or a computer disk or file) that is an integral part of the printing industry is almost always provided by these operations.

Processes used in printing include a variety of methods used to transfer an image from a plate, screen, film, or computer file to some medium, such as paper, plastics, metal, textile articles, or wood. The printing processes employed include, but are not limited to, lithographic, gravure, screen, flexographic, digital, and letterpress.

In contrast to many other classification systems that locate publishing of printed materials in manufacturing, NAICS classifies the publishing of printed products in Subsector 511, Publishing Industries (except Internet). Though printing and publishing are often carried out by the same enterprise (a newspaper, for example), it is less and less the case that these distinct activities are carried out in the same establishment. When publishing and printing are done in the same establishment, the establishment is classified in Sector 51, Information, in the appropriate NAICS industry even if the receipts for printing exceed those for publishing.

This subsector includes printing on clothing because the production process for that activity is printing, not clothing manufacturing. For instance, the printing of T-shirts is included in this subsector. In contrast, printing on fabric (or grey goods) is not included. This activity is part of the process of finishing the fabric and is included in the Textile Mills subsector in Industry 31331, Textile and Fabric Finishing Mills.
3231Printing and Related Support Activities TNULL
32311Printing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in printing on apparel and textile products, paper, metal, glass, plastics, and other materials, except fabric (grey goods). The printing processes employed include, but are not limited to, lithographic, gravure, screen, flexographic, digital, and letterpress. Establishments in this industry do not manufacture the stock that they print, but may perform postprinting activities, such as folding, cutting, or laminating the materials they print, and mailing.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
323111Commercial Printing (except Screen and Books)This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in commercial printing (except screen printing, books printing) without publishing (except grey goods printing). The printing processes used in this industry include, but are not limited to, lithographic, gravure, flexographic, letterpress, engraving, and various digital printing technologies. This industry includes establishments engaged in commercial printing on purchased stock materials, such as stationery, invitations, labels, and similar items, on a job-order basis. Establishments primarily engaged in traditional printing activities combined with document photocopying services (i.e., quick printers) or primarily engaged in printing graphical materials using digital printing equipment are included in this industry.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
323113Commercial Screen PrintingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in screen printing without publishing (except books, grey goods, and manifold business forms). This industry includes establishments engaged in screen printing on purchased stock materials, such as stationery, invitations, labels, and similar items, on a job-order basis. Establishments primarily engaged in printing on apparel and textile products, such as T-shirts, caps, jackets, towels, and napkins, are included in this industry.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
323117Books PrintingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in printing or printing and binding books and pamphlets without publishing.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
32312Support Activities for Printing TSee industry description for 323120.
323120Support Activities for PrintingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in performing prepress and postpress services in support of printing activities. Prepress services may include such things as platemaking, typesetting, trade binding, and sample mounting. Postpress services include such things as book or paper bronzing, die cutting, edging, embossing, folding, gilding, gluing, and indexing.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
324Petroleum and Coal Products Manufacturing TThe Petroleum and Coal Products Manufacturing subsector is based on the transformation of crude petroleum and coal into usable products. The dominant process is petroleum refining that involves the separation of crude petroleum into component products through such techniques as cracking and distillation.

In addition, this subsector includes establishments that primarily further process refined petroleum and coal products and produce products, such as asphalt coatings and petroleum lubricating oils. However, establishments that manufacture petrochemicals from refined petroleum are classified in Industry 32511, Petrochemical Manufacturing.
3241Petroleum and Coal Products Manufacturing TNULL
32411Petroleum Refineries TSee industry description for 324110.
324110Petroleum RefineriesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in refining crude petroleum into refined petroleum. Petroleum refining involves one or more of the following activities: (1) fractionation; (2) straight distillation of crude oil; and (3) cracking.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
32412Asphalt Paving, Roofing, and Saturated Materials Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) manufacturing asphalt and tar paving mixtures and blocks and roofing cements and coatings from purchased asphaltic materials and/or (2) saturating purchased mats and felts with asphalt or tar from purchased asphaltic materials.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
324121Asphalt Paving Mixture and Block ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing asphalt and tar paving mixtures and blocks from purchased asphaltic materials.

Cross-References.
324122Asphalt Shingle and Coating Materials ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) saturating purchased mats and felts with asphalt or tar from purchased asphaltic materials and (2) manufacturing asphalt and tar and roofing cements and coatings from purchased asphaltic materials.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
32419Other Petroleum and Coal Products Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing petroleum products (except asphalt paving, roofing, and saturated materials) from refined petroleum or coal products made in coke ovens not integrated with a steel mill.

Illustrative Examples:

Biodiesel fuels not made in petroleum refineries and blended with purchased refined petroleum
Coke oven products (e.g., coke, gases, tars) made in coke oven establishments
Petroleum brake fluids made from refined petroleum
Petroleum briquettes made from refined petroleum
Petroleum jelly made from refined petroleum
Petroleum lubricating oils and greases made from refined petroleum
Petroleum waxes made from refined petroleum
Re-refining used petroleum lubricating oils


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
324191Petroleum Lubricating Oil and Grease ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in blending or compounding refined petroleum to make lubricating oils and greases and/or re-refining used petroleum lubricating oils.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
324199All Other Petroleum and Coal Products ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing petroleum products (except asphalt paving, roofing, and saturated materials and lubricating oils and greases) from refined petroleum and coal products made in coke ovens not integrated with a steel mill.

Illustrative Examples:

Biodiesel fuels not made in petroleum refineries and blended with purchased refined petroleum
Coke oven products (e.g., coke, gases, tars) made in coke oven establishments
Petroleum briquettes made from refined petroleum
Petroleum jelly made from refined petroleum
Petroleum waxes made from refined petroleum


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
325Chemical Manufacturing TThe Chemical Manufacturing subsector is based on the transformation of organic and inorganic raw materials by a chemical process and the formulation of products. This subsector distinguishes the production of basic chemicals that comprise the first industry group from the production of intermediate and end products produced by further processing of basic chemicals that make up the remaining industry groups.

This subsector does not include all industries transforming raw materials by a chemical process. It is common for some chemical processing to occur during mining operations. These beneficiating operations, such as copper concentrating, are classified in Sector 21, Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction. Furthermore, the refining of crude petroleum is included in Subsector 324, Petroleum and Coal Products Manufacturing. In addition, the manufacturing of aluminum oxide is included in Subsector 331, Primary Metal Manufacturing; and beverage distilleries are classified in Subsector 312, Beverage and Tobacco Product Manufacturing. As is the case of these two activities, the grouping of industries into subsectors may take into account the association of the activities performed with other activities in the subsector.
3251Basic Chemical Manufacturing TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing chemicals using basic processes, such as thermal cracking and distillation. Chemicals manufactured in this industry group are usually separate chemical elements or separate chemically-defined compounds.
32511Petrochemical Manufacturing TSee industry description for 325110.
325110Petrochemical ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) manufacturing acyclic (i.e., aliphatic) hydrocarbons such as ethylene, propylene, and butylene made from refined petroleum or liquid hydrocarbons and/or (2) manufacturing cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, styrene, xylene, ethyl benzene, and cumene made from refined petroleum or liquid hydrocarbons.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
32512Industrial Gas Manufacturing TSee industry description for 325120.
325120Industrial Gas ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing industrial organic and inorganic gases in compressed, liquid, and solid forms.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
32513Synthetic Dye and Pigment Manufacturing TSee industry description for 325130.
325130Synthetic Dye and Pigment ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing synthetic organic and inorganic dyes and pigments, such as lakes and toners (except electrostatic and photographic).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
32518Other Basic Inorganic Chemical Manufacturing TSee industry description for 325180.
325180Other Basic Inorganic Chemical ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing basic inorganic chemicals (except industrial gases and synthetic dyes and pigments).

Illustrative Examples:

Alkalies manufacturing
Aluminum compounds, not specified elsewhere by process, manufacturing
Carbides (e.g., baron, calcium, silicon, tungsten) manufacturing
Carbon black manufacturing
Chlorine manufacturing
Hydrochloric acid manufacturing
Potassium inorganic compounds, not specified elsewhere by process, manufacturing
Radioactive isotopes manufacturing
Sulfides and sulfites manufacturing
Sulfuric acid manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
32519Other Basic Organic Chemical Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing basic organic chemicals (except petrochemicals, industrial gases, and synthetic dyes and pigments).

Illustrative Examples:

Biodiesel fuels not made in petroleum refineries and not blended with petroleum
Carbon organic compounds, not specified elsewhere by process, manufacturing
Cyclic intermediates made from refined petroleum or natural gas (except aromatic petrochemicals)
Enzyme proteins (i.e., basic synthetic chemicals) (except pharmaceutical use) manufacturing
Fatty acids (e.g., margaric, oleic, stearic) manufacturing
Gum and wood chemicals manufacturing
Organo-inorganic compound manufacturing
Plasticizers (i.e., basic synthetic chemical) manufacturing
Silicone (except resins) manufacturing
Synthetic sweeteners (i.e., sweetening agents) manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
325193Ethyl Alcohol ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing nonpotable ethyl alcohol.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
325194Cyclic Crude, Intermediate, and Gum and Wood Chemical ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) distilling wood or gum into products, such as tall oil and wood distillates; (2) distilling coal tars; (3) manufacturing wood or gum chemicals, such as naval stores, natural tanning materials, charcoal briquettes, and charcoal (except activated); and (4) manufacturing cyclic crudes or cyclic intermediates (i.e., hydrocarbons, except aromatic petrochemicals) from refined petroleum or natural gas.

Cross-references. Establishments primarily engaged in--
325199All Other Basic Organic Chemical ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing basic organic chemical products (except aromatic petrochemicals, industrial gases, synthetic organic dyes and pigments, gum and wood chemicals, cyclic crudes and intermediates, and ethyl alcohol).

Illustrative Examples:

Biodiesel fuels not made in petroleum refineries and not blended with petroleum
Calcium organic compounds, not specified elsewhere by process, manufacturing
Carbon organic compounds, not specified elsewhere by process, manufacturing
Enzyme proteins (i.e., basic synthetic chemicals) (except pharmaceutical use) manufacturing
Fatty acids (e.g., margaric, oleic, stearic) manufacturing
Organo-inorganic compound manufacturing
Plasticizers (i.e., basic synthetic chemicals) manufacturing
Silicone (except resins) manufacturing
Synthetic sweeteners (i.e., sweetening agents) manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
3252Resin, Synthetic Rubber, and Artificial and Synthetic Fibers and Filaments Manufacturing TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in one of the following: (1) manufacturing synthetic resins, plastics materials, and nonvulcanizable elastomers and mixing and blending resins on a custom basis; (2) manufacturing noncustomized synthetic resins; (3) manufacturing synthetic rubber; (4) manufacturing cellulosic (e.g., rayon, acetate) and noncellulosic (e.g., nylon, polyolefin, polyester) fibers and filaments in the form of monofilament, filament yarn, staple, or tow; or (5) manufacturing and texturizing cellulosic and noncellulosic fibers and filaments.
32521Resin and Synthetic Rubber Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) manufacturing synthetic resins, plastics materials, and nonvulcanizable elastomers and mixing and blending resins on a custom basis; (2) manufacturing noncustomized synthetic resins; and (3) manufacturing synthetic rubber.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
325211Plastics Material and Resin ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) manufacturing resins, plastics materials, and nonvulcanizable thermoplastic elastomers and mixing and blending resins on a custom basis and/or (2) manufacturing noncustomized synthetic resins.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
325212Synthetic Rubber ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing synthetic rubber.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
32522Artificial and Synthetic Fibers and Filaments Manufacturing TSee industry description for 325220.
325220Artificial and Synthetic Fibers and Filaments ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) manufacturing cellulosic (e.g., rayon, acetate) and noncellulosic (e.g., nylon, polyolefin, polyester) fibers and filaments in the form of monofilament, filament yarn, staple, or tow or (2) manufacturing and texturizing cellulosic and noncellulosic fibers and filaments.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
3253Pesticide, Fertilizer, and Other Agricultural Chemical Manufacturing TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) manufacturing nitrogenous or phosphatic fertilizer materials; (2) manufacturing fertilizers from sewage or animal waste; (3) manufacturing nitrogenous or phosphatic materials and mixing with other ingredients into fertilizers; (4) mixing ingredients made elsewhere into fertilizers; and (5) formulating and preparing pesticides and other agricultural chemicals.
32531Fertilizer Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) manufacturing nitrogenous or phosphatic fertilizer materials; (2) manufacturing fertilizers from sewage or animal waste; (3) manufacturing nitrogenous or phosphatic materials and mixing with other ingredients into fertilizers; and (4) mixing ingredients made elsewhere into fertilizers.
325311Nitrogenous Fertilizer ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) manufacturing nitrogenous fertilizer materials and mixing ingredients into fertilizers; (2) manufacturing fertilizers from sewage or animal waste; and (3) manufacturing nitrogenous materials and mixing them into fertilizers.

Cross-References.
325312Phosphatic Fertilizer ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) manufacturing phosphatic fertilizer materials or (2) manufacturing phosphatic materials and mixing them into fertilizers.

Cross-References.
325314Fertilizer (Mixing Only) ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in mixing ingredients made elsewhere into fertilizers.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
32532Pesticide and Other Agricultural Chemical Manufacturing TSee industry description for 325320.
325320Pesticide and Other Agricultural Chemical ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the formulation and preparation of agricultural and household pest control chemicals (except fertilizers).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
3254Pharmaceutical and Medicine Manufacturing TNULL
32541Pharmaceutical and Medicine Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) manufacturing biological and medicinal products; (2) processing (i.e., grading, grinding, and milling) botanical drugs and herbs; (3) isolating active medicinal principals from botanical drugs and herbs; and (4) manufacturing pharmaceutical products intended for internal and external consumption in such forms as ampoules, tablets, capsules, vials, ointments, powders, solutions, and suspensions.
325411Medicinal and Botanical ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) manufacturing uncompounded medicinal chemicals and their derivatives (i.e., generally for use by pharmaceutical preparation manufacturers) and/or (2) grading, grinding, and milling uncompounded botanicals.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
325412Pharmaceutical Preparation ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing in-vivo diagnostic substances and pharmaceutical preparations (except biological) intended for internal and external consumption in dose forms, such as ampoules, tablets, capsules, vials, ointments, powders, solutions, and suspensions.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
325413In-Vitro Diagnostic Substance ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing in-vitro (i.e., not taken internally) diagnostic substances, such as chemical, biological, or radioactive substances. The substances are used for diagnostic tests that are performed in test tubes, petri dishes, machines, and other diagnostic test-type devices.

Cross-References.
325414Biological Product (except Diagnostic) ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing vaccines, toxoids, blood fractions, and culture media of plant or animal origin (except diagnostic).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
3255Paint, Coating, and Adhesive Manufacturing TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) mixing pigments, solvents, and binders into paints and other coatings; (2) manufacturing allied paint products; and (3) manufacturing adhesives, glues, and caulking compounds.
32551Paint and Coating Manufacturing TSee industry description for 325510.
325510Paint and Coating ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) mixing pigments, solvents, and binders into paints and other coatings, such as stains, varnishes, lacquers, enamels, shellacs, and water-repellent coatings for concrete and masonry, and/or (2) manufacturing allied paint products, such as putties, paint and varnish removers, paint brush cleaners, and frit.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
32552Adhesive Manufacturing TSee industry description for 325520.
325520Adhesive ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing adhesives, glues, and caulking compounds.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
3256Soap, Cleaning Compound, and Toilet Preparation Manufacturing TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) manufacturing and packaging soaps, detergents, polishes, surface active agents, textile and leather finishing agents, and other sanitation goods or (2) preparing, blending, compounding, and packaging toilet preparations.
32561Soap and Cleaning Compound Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing and packaging soaps and other cleaning compounds, surface active agents, and textile and leather finishing agents used to reduce tension or speed the drying process.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
325611Soap and Other Detergent ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing and packaging soaps and other detergents, such as laundry and dishwashing detergents; toothpaste gels and tooth powders; and natural glycerin.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
325612Polish and Other Sanitation Good ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing and packaging polishes and specialty cleaning preparations.

Cross-References.
325613Surface Active Agent ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) manufacturing bulk surface active agents for use as wetting agents, emulsifiers, and penetrants and/or (2) manufacturing textile and leather finishing agents used to reduce tension or speed the drying process.
32562Toilet Preparation Manufacturing TSee industry description for 325620.
325620Toilet Preparation ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in preparing, blending, compounding, and packaging toilet preparations, such as perfumes, shaving preparations, hair preparations, face creams, lotions (including sunscreens), and other cosmetic preparations.

Cross-References.
3259Other Chemical Product and Preparation Manufacturing TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing chemical products (except basic chemicals; resins, synthetic rubber, cellulosic and noncellulosic fibers and filaments; pesticides, fertilizers, and other agricultural chemicals; pharmaceuticals and medicines; paints, coatings, and adhesives; soaps and cleaning compounds; and toilet preparations).
32591Printing Ink Manufacturing TSee industry description for 325910.
325910Printing Ink ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing printing and inkjet inks and inkjet cartridges.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
32592Explosives Manufacturing TSee industry description for 325920.
325920Explosives ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing explosives.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
32599All Other Chemical Product and Preparation Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing chemical products (except basic chemicals, resins, and synthetic rubber; cellulosic and noncellulosic fibers and filaments; pesticides, fertilizers, and other agricultural chemicals; pharmaceuticals and medicines; paints, coatings, and adhesives; soaps, cleaning compounds, and toilet preparations; printing inks; and explosives).

Illustrative Examples:

Activated carbon and charcoal manufacturing
Antifreeze preparations manufacturing
Custom compounding (i.e., blending and mixing) of purchased plastics resins
Electronic cigarette vapor refills manufacturing
Industrial salt manufacturing
Matches and matchbook manufacturing
Photographic chemicals manufacturing
Pyrotechnics (e.g., flares, flashlight bombs, signals) manufacturing
Sugar substitutes (i.e., synthetic sweeteners blended with other ingredients) made from purchased synthetic sweeteners
Swimming pool chemical preparations manufacturing
Writing inks manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
325991Custom Compounding of Purchased ResinsThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) custom mixing and blending plastics resins made elsewhere or (2) reformulating plastics resins from recycled plastics products.

Cross-References.
325992Photographic Film, Paper, Plate, and Chemical ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing sensitized film, sensitized paper, sensitized cloth, sensitized plates, toners (i.e., for photocopiers, laser printers, and similar electrostatic printing devices), toner cartridges, and photographic chemicals.

Cross-References.
325998All Other Miscellaneous Chemical Product and Preparation ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing chemical products (except basic chemicals, resins, and synthetic rubber; cellulosic and noncellulosic fibers and filaments; pesticides, fertilizers, and other agricultural chemicals; pharmaceuticals and medicines; paints, coatings and adhesives; soaps, cleaning compounds, and toilet preparations; printing inks; explosives; custom compounding of purchased resins; and photographic films, papers, plates, and chemicals).

Illustrative Examples:

Activated carbon and charcoal manufacturing
Antifreeze preparations manufacturing
Electronic cigarette vapor refills manufacturing
Industrial salt manufacturing
Lighter fluids (e.g., charcoal, cigarette) manufacturing
Matches and matchbook manufacturing
Pyrotechnics (e.g., flares, flashlight bombs, signals) manufacturing
Sugar substitutes (i.e., synthetic sweeteners blended with other ingredients) made from purchased synthetic sweeteners
Swimming pool chemical preparations manufacturing
Writing inks manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
326Plastics and Rubber Products Manufacturing TIndustries in the Plastics and Rubber Products Manufacturing subsector make goods by processing plastics materials and raw rubber. The core technology employed by establishments in this subsector is that of plastics or rubber product production. Plastics and rubber are combined in the same subsector because plastics are increasingly being used as a substitute for rubber; however the subsector is generally restricted to the production of products made of just one material, either solely plastics or rubber.

Many manufacturing activities use plastics or rubber, for example the manufacture of footwear or furniture. Typically, the production process of these products involves more than one material. In these cases, technologies that allow disparate materials to be formed and combined are of central importance in describing the manufacturing activity. In NAICS, such activities (footwear and furniture manufacturing) are not classified in the Plastics and Rubber Products Manufacturing subsector because the core technologies for these activities are diverse and involve multiple materials.

Within the Plastics and Rubber Products Manufacturing subsector, a distinction is made between plastics and rubber products at the industry group level, although it is not a rigid distinction, as can be seen from the definition of Industry 32622, Rubber and Plastics Hoses and Belting Manufacturing. As materials technology progresses, plastics are increasingly being used as a substitute for rubber; and eventually, the distinction may disappear as a basis for establishment classification.

In keeping with the core technology focus of plastics, lamination of plastics film to plastics film as well as the production of bags from plastics only is classified in this subsector. Lamination and bag production involving plastics and materials other than plastics are classified in Subsector 322, Paper Manufacturing.
3261Plastics Product Manufacturing TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in processing new or spent (i.e., recycled) plastics resins into intermediate or final products, using such processes as compression molding; extrusion molding; injection molding; blow molding; and casting. Within most of these industries, the production process is such that a wide variety of products can be made.
32611Plastics Packaging Materials and Unlaminated Film and Sheet Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) converting plastics resins into unsupported plastics film and sheet and/or (2) forming, coating, or laminating plastics film and sheet into plastics bags.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
326111Plastics Bag and Pouch ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) converting plastics resins into plastics bags or pouches and/or (2) forming, coating, or laminating plastics film or sheet into single-web or multiweb plastics bags or pouches. Establishments in this industry may print on the bags or pouches they manufacture.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
326112Plastics Packaging Film and Sheet (including Laminated) ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in converting plastics resins into plastics packaging (flexible) film and packaging sheet.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
326113Unlaminated Plastics Film and Sheet (except Packaging) ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in converting plastics resins into plastics film and unlaminated sheet (except packaging).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
32612Plastics Pipe, Pipe Fitting, and Unlaminated Profile Shape Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing plastics pipes and pipe fittings, and plastics profile shapes such as rod, tube, and sausage casings.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
326121Unlaminated Plastics Profile Shape ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in converting plastics resins into nonrigid plastics profile shapes (except film, sheet, and bags), such as rod, tube, and sausage casings.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
326122Plastics Pipe and Pipe Fitting ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in converting plastics resins into rigid plastics pipes and pipe fittings.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
32613Laminated Plastics Plate, Sheet (except Packaging), and Shape Manufacturing TSee industry description for 326130.
326130Laminated Plastics Plate, Sheet (except Packaging), and Shape ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in laminating plastics profile shapes such as plate, sheet (except packaging), and rod. The lamination process generally involves bonding or impregnating profiles with plastics resins and compressing them under heat.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
32614Polystyrene Foam Product Manufacturing TSee industry description for 326140.
326140Polystyrene Foam Product ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing polystyrene foam products.

Cross-References.
32615Urethane and Other Foam Product (except Polystyrene) Manufacturing TSee industry description for 326150.
326150Urethane and Other Foam Product (except Polystyrene) ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing plastics foam products (except polystyrene).

Cross-References.
32616Plastics Bottle Manufacturing TSee industry description for 326160.
326160Plastics Bottle ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing plastics bottles.

Cross-References.
32619Other Plastics Product Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing plastics plumbing fixtures and other plastics products (except film, sheet, bags, profile shapes, pipes, pipe fittings, laminates, foam products, and bottles).

Illustrative Examples:

Inflatable plastics swimming pool rafts and similar flotation devices manufacturing
Plastics air mattresses manufacturing
Plastics bottle caps and lids manufacturing
Plastics bowls and bowl covers manufacturing
Plastics clothes hangers manufacturing
Plastics cups (except foam) manufacturing
Plastics dinnerware (except foam) manufacturing
Plastics gloves manufacturing
Plastics hardware manufacturing
Plastics ice chests or coolers (except plastics foam) manufacturing
Plastics or fiberglass plumbing fixtures (e.g., toilets, shower stalls, urinals) manufacturing
Plastics prefabricated buildings manufacturing
Plastics siding manufacturing
Plastics trash containers manufacturing
Resilient floor coverings (e.g., sheet, tiles) manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
326191Plastics Plumbing Fixture ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing plastics or fiberglass plumbing fixtures. Examples of products made by these establishments are plastics or fiberglass bathtubs, hot tubs, portable toilets, and shower stalls.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
326199All Other Plastics Product ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing plastics products (except film, sheet, bags, profile shapes, pipes, pipe fittings, laminates, foam products, bottles, and plumbing fixtures).

Illustrative Examples:

Inflatable plastics swimming pool rafts and similar flotation devices manufacturing
Plastics air mattresses manufacturing
Plastics bottle caps and lids manufacturing
Plastics bowls and bowl covers manufacturing
Plastics clothes hangers manufacturing
Plastics cups (except foam) manufacturing
Plastics dinnerware (except foam) manufacturing
Plastics gloves manufacturing
Plastics hardware manufacturing
Plastics siding manufacturing
Plastics trash containers manufacturing
Resilient floor coverings (e.g., sheet, tiles) manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
3262Rubber Product Manufacturing TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in processing natural, synthetic, or reclaimed rubber materials into intermediate or final products using processes, such as vulcanizing, cementing, molding, extruding, and lathe-cutting.
32621Tire Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing tires and inner tubes from natural and synthetic rubber and retreading or rebuilding tires.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
326211Tire Manufacturing (except Retreading)This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing tires and inner tubes from natural and synthetic rubber.

Cross-References.
326212Tire RetreadingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in retreading or rebuilding tires.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
32622Rubber and Plastics Hoses and Belting Manufacturing TSee industry description for 326220.
326220Rubber and Plastics Hoses and Belting ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing rubber hose and/or plastics (reinforced) hose and belting from natural and synthetic rubber and/or plastics resins. Establishments manufacturing garden hoses from purchased hose are included in this industry.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
32629Other Rubber Product Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing rubber products (except tires, hoses, and belting) from natural and synthetic rubber.

Illustrative Examples:

Birth control devices (e.g., diaphragms, prophylactics) manufacturing
Latex foam rubber manufacturing
Mechanical rubber goods (i.e., molded, extruded, lathe-cut) manufacturing
Reclaiming rubber from waste and scrap
Rubber balloons manufacturing
Rubber bands manufacturing
Rubber floor mats (e.g., door, bath) manufacturing
Rubber hair care products (e.g., combs, curlers) manufacturing
Rubber tubing manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
326291Rubber Product Manufacturing for Mechanical UseThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing rubber goods (except tubing) for mechanical applications, using the processes of molding, extruding or lathe-cutting. Products of this industry are generally parts for motor vehicles, machinery, and equipment.

Cross-References.
326299All Other Rubber Product ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing rubber products (except tires; hoses and belting; and molded, extruded, and lathe-cut rubber goods for mechanical applications (except rubber tubing)) from natural and synthetic rubber. Establishments manufacturing rubber tubing made from natural and synthetic rubber, regardless of process used, are included in this industry.

Illustrative Examples:

Birth control devices (i.e., diaphragms, prophylactics) manufacturing
Latex foam rubber manufacturing
Reclaiming rubber from waste and scrap
Rubber balloons manufacturing
Rubber bands manufacturing
Rubber floor mats (e.g., door, bath) manufacturing
Rubber hair care products (e.g., combs, curlers) manufacturing
Rubber tubing manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
327Nonmetallic Mineral Product Manufacturing TThe Nonmetallic Mineral Product Manufacturing subsector transforms mined or quarried nonmetallic minerals, such as sand, gravel, stone, clay, and refractory materials, into products for intermediate or final consumption. Processes used include grinding, mixing, cutting, shaping, and honing. Heat often is used in the process and chemicals are frequently mixed to change the composition, purity, and chemical properties for the intended product. For example, glass is produced by heating silica sand to the melting point (sometimes combined with cullet or recycled glass) and then drawn, floated, or blow molded to the desired shape or thickness. Refractory materials are heated and then formed into bricks or other shapes for use in industrial applications.

The Nonmetallic Mineral Product Manufacturing subsector includes establishments that manufacture bricks, refractories, ceramic products, and glass and glass products, such as plate glass and containers. Also included are cement and concrete products, lime, gypsum and other nonmetallic mineral products including abrasive products, ceramic plumbing fixtures, statuary, cut stone products, and mineral wool. The products are used in a wide range of activities from construction and heavy and light manufacturing to articles for personal use.

Mining, beneficiating, and manufacturing activities often occur in a single location. Separate receipts will be collected for these activities whenever possible. When receipts cannot be broken out between mining and manufacturing, establishments that mine or quarry nonmetallic minerals, beneficiate the nonmetallic minerals, and further process the nonmetallic minerals into a more finished manufactured product are classified based on the primary activity of the establishment. A mine that manufactures a small amount of finished products is classified in Sector 21, Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction. An establishment that mines whose primary output is a more finished manufactured product is classified in the Manufacturing sector.

Excluded from the Nonmetallic Mineral Product Manufacturing subsector are establishments that primarily beneficiate mined nonmetallic minerals. Beneficiation is the process whereby the extracted material is reduced to particles that can be separated into mineral and waste, the former suitable for further processing or direct use. Beneficiation establishments are included in Sector 21, Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction.
3271Clay Product and Refractory Manufacturing TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) shaping, molding, glazing, and firing pottery, ceramics, and plumbing fixtures, and electrical supplies made entirely or partly of clay or other ceramic materials or (2) shaping, molding, baking, burning, or hardening clay refractories, nonclay refractories, ceramic tile, structural clay tile, brick, and other structural clay building materials.
32711Pottery, Ceramics, and Plumbing Fixture Manufacturing TSee industry description for 327110.
327110Pottery, Ceramics, and Plumbing Fixture ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in shaping, molding, glazing, and firing pottery, ceramics, plumbing fixtures, and electrical supplies made entirely or partly of clay or other ceramic materials.

Illustrative Examples:

Bathroom accessories, vitreous china and earthenware, manufacturing
Ceramic or ferrite permanent magnets manufacturing
Chemical stoneware (i.e., pottery products) manufacturing
Clay and ceramic statuary manufacturing
Earthenware table and kitchen articles, coarse, manufacturing
Porcelain electrical insulators manufacturing
Vitreous china plumbing fixtures manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
32712Clay Building Material and Refractories Manufacturing TSee industry description for 327120.
327120Clay Building Material and Refractories ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in shaping, molding, baking, burning, or hardening clay refractories, nonclay refractories, ceramic tile, structural clay tile, brick, and other structural clay building materials. A refractory is a material that will retain its shape and chemical identity when subjected to high temperatures and is used in applications that require extreme resistance to heat, such as furnace linings.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
3272Glass and Glass Product Manufacturing TNULL
32721Glass and Glass Product Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing glass and/or glass products. Establishments in this industry may manufacture glass and/or glass products by melting silica sand or cullet, or from purchased glass.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
327211Flat Glass ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) manufacturing flat glass by melting silica sand or cullet or (2) manufacturing both flat glass and laminated glass by melting silica sand or cullet.

Cross-References.
327212Other Pressed and Blown Glass and Glassware ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing glass by melting silica sand or cullet and making pressed, blown, or shaped glass or glassware (except glass packaging containers).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
327213Glass Container ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing glass packaging containers.
327215Glass Product Manufacturing Made of Purchased GlassThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in coating, laminating, tempering, or shaping purchased glass.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
3273Cement and Concrete Product Manufacturing TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in one of the following: (1) manufacturing portland, natural, masonry, pozzolanic, and other hydraulic cements; (2) acting as batch or mixing plants, manufacturing concrete delivered to a purchaser in a plastic and unhardened state; (3) manufacturing concrete pipe, brick, and block; or (4) manufacturing other concrete products (except block, brick, and pipe).
32731Cement Manufacturing TSee industry description for 327310.
327310Cement ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing portland, natural, masonry, pozzolanic, and other hydraulic cements. Cement manufacturing establishments may calcine earths or mine, quarry, manufacture, or purchase lime.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
32732Ready-Mix Concrete Manufacturing TSee industry description for 327320.
327320Ready-Mix Concrete ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments, such as batch plants or mix plants, primarily engaged in manufacturing concrete delivered to a purchaser in a plastic and unhardened state. Ready-mix concrete manufacturing establishments may mine, quarry, or purchase sand and gravel.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
32733Concrete Pipe, Brick, and Block Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing concrete pipe, brick, and block.

Cross-References.
327331Concrete Block and Brick ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing concrete block and brick.
327332Concrete Pipe ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing concrete pipe.
32739Other Concrete Product Manufacturing TSee industry description for 327390.
327390Other Concrete Product ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing concrete products (except block, brick, and pipe).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
3274Lime and Gypsum Product Manufacturing TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) manufacturing lime from calcitic limestone, dolomitic limestone, or other calcareous materials or (2) manufacturing gypsum products.
32741Lime Manufacturing TSee industry description for 327410.
327410Lime ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing lime from calcitic limestone, dolomitic limestone, or other calcareous materials, such as coral, chalk, and shells. Lime manufacturing establishments may mine, quarry, collect, or purchase the sources of calcium carbonate.

Cross-References.
32742Gypsum Product Manufacturing TSee industry description for 327420.
327420Gypsum Product ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing gypsum products, such as wallboard, plaster, plasterboard, molding, ornamental moldings, statuary, and architectural plaster work. Gypsum product manufacturing establishments may mine, quarry, or purchase gypsum.

Cross-References.
3279Other Nonmetallic Mineral Product Manufacturing TThis industry group comprises establishments manufacturing nonmetallic mineral products (except clay products, refractory products, glass products, cement and concrete products, lime, and gypsum products).
32791Abrasive Product Manufacturing TSee industry description for 327910.
327910Abrasive Product ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing abrasive grinding wheels of natural or synthetic materials, abrasive-coated products, and other abrasive products.

Illustrative Examples:

Aluminum oxide (fused) abrasives manufacturing
Buffing and polishing wheels, abrasive and nonabrasive, manufacturing
Diamond dressing wheels manufacturing
Sandpaper manufacturing
Silicon carbide abrasives manufacturing
Whetstones manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
32799All Other Nonmetallic Mineral Product Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing nonmetallic mineral products (except pottery and plumbing fixtures; clay building materials and refractories; glass and glass products; cement; ready-mix concrete; concrete products; lime; gypsum products; and abrasive products).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
327991Cut Stone and Stone Product ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in cutting, shaping, and finishing granite, marble, limestone, slate, and other stone for building and miscellaneous uses. Stone product manufacturing establishments may mine, quarry, or purchase stone.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
327992Ground or Treated Mineral and Earth ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in calcining, dead burning, or otherwise processing beyond beneficiation, clays, ceramic and refractory minerals, barite, and miscellaneous nonmetallic minerals.

Cross-References.
327993Mineral Wool ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing mineral wool and mineral wool (i.e., fiberglass) insulation products made of such siliceous materials as rock, slag, and glass or combinations thereof.

Cross-References.
327999All Other Miscellaneous Nonmetallic Mineral Product ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing nonmetallic mineral products (except pottery, ceramics, and plumbing fixtures; clay building materials and refractories; glass and glass products; cement; ready-mix concrete; concrete products; lime; gypsum products; abrasive products; cut stone and stone products; ground and treated minerals and earth; and mineral wool).

Illustrative Examples:

Dry mix concrete manufacturing
Mica products manufacturing
Manmade and engineered proppants (e.g., resin-coated sand, ceramic materials) manufacturing
Stucco and stucco products manufacturing
Synthetic stones, for gem stones and industrial use, manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
331Primary Metal Manufacturing TIndustries in the Primary Metal Manufacturing subsector smelt and/or refine ferrous and nonferrous metals from ore, pig or scrap, using electrometallurgical and other process metallurgical techniques. Establishments in this subsector also manufacture metal alloys and superalloys by introducing other chemical elements to pure metals. The output of smelting and refining, usually in ingot form, is used in rolling, drawing, and extruding operations to make sheet, strip, bar, rod, or wire, and in molten form to make castings and other basic metal products.

Primary manufacturing of ferrous and nonferrous metals begins with ore or concentrate as the primary input. Establishments manufacturing primary metals from ore and/or concentrate remain classified in the primary smelting, primary refining, or iron and steel mill industries regardless of the form of their output. Establishments primarily engaged in secondary smelting and/or secondary refining recover ferrous and nonferrous metals from scrap and/or dross. The output of the secondary smelting and/or secondary refining industries is limited to shapes such as ingot or billet that will be further processed. Recovery of metals from scrap often occurs in establishments that are primarily engaged in activities, such as rolling, drawing, extruding, or similar processes.

Excluded from the Primary Metal Manufacturing subsector are establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing ferrous and nonferrous forgings (except ferrous forgings made in steel mills) and stampings. Although forging, stamping, and casting are all methods used to make metal shapes, forging and stamping do not use molten metals and are included in Subsector 332, Fabricated Metal Product Manufacturing. Establishments primarily engaged in operating coke ovens are classified in Industry 32419, Other Petroleum and Coal Products Manufacturing.
3311Iron and Steel Mills and Ferroalloy Manufacturing TNULL
33111Iron and Steel Mills and Ferroalloy Manufacturing TSee industry description for 331110.
331110Iron and Steel Mills and Ferroalloy ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) direct reduction of iron ore; (2) manufacturing pig iron in molten or solid form; (3) converting pig iron into steel; (4) making steel; (5) making steel and manufacturing shapes (e.g., bar, plate, rod, sheet, strip, wire); (6) making steel and forming pipe and tube; and (7) manufacturing electrometallurgical ferroalloys. Ferroalloys add critical elements, such as silicon and manganese for carbon steel and chromium, vanadium, tungsten, titanium, and molybdenum for low- and high-alloy metals. Ferroalloys include iron-rich alloys and more pure forms of elements added during the steel manufacturing process that alter or improve the characteristics of the metal.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
3312Steel Product Manufacturing from Purchased Steel TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing iron and steel tube and pipe, drawing steel wire, and rolling or drawing shapes from purchased iron or steel.
33121Iron and Steel Pipe and Tube Manufacturing from Purchased Steel TSee industry description for 331210.
331210Iron and Steel Pipe and Tube Manufacturing from Purchased SteelThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing welded, riveted, or seamless pipe and tube from purchased iron or steel.

Cross-References.
33122Rolling and Drawing of Purchased Steel TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in rolling and/or drawing steel shapes, such as plate, sheet, strip, rod, and bar, from purchased steel.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
331221Rolled Steel Shape ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in rolling or drawing shapes (except wire), such as plate, sheet, strip, rod, and bar, from purchased steel.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
331222Steel Wire DrawingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in drawing wire from purchased steel.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
3313Alumina and Aluminum Production and Processing TNULL
33131Alumina and Aluminum Production and Processing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) refining alumina; (2) making (i.e., the primary production) aluminum from alumina; (3) recovering aluminum from scrap or dross; (4) alloying purchased aluminum; and (5) manufacturing aluminum primary forms (e.g., bar, foil, pipe, plate, rod, sheet, tube, wire).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
331313Alumina Refining and Primary Aluminum ProductionThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) refining alumina (i.e., aluminum oxide) generally from bauxite; (2) making aluminum from alumina; and/or (3) making aluminum from alumina and rolling, drawing, extruding, or casting the aluminum they make into primary forms. Establishments in this industry may make primary aluminum or aluminum-based alloys from alumina.

Cross-references. Establishments primarily engaged in--
331314Secondary Smelting and Alloying of AluminumThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) recovering aluminum and aluminum alloys from scrap and/or dross (i.e., secondary smelting) and making billet or ingot (except by rolling) and/or (2) manufacturing alloys, powder, paste, or flake from purchased aluminum.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
331315Aluminum Sheet, Plate, and Foil ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) flat rolling or continuous casting sheet, plate, foil and welded tube from purchased aluminum and/or (2) recovering aluminum from scrap and flat rolling or continuous casting sheet, plate, foil, and welded tube in integrated mills.

Cross-References.
331318Other Aluminum Rolling, Drawing, and ExtrudingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) rolling, drawing, or extruding shapes (except flat rolled sheet, plate, foil, and welded tube) from purchased aluminum and/or (2) recovering aluminum from scrap and rolling, drawing, or extruding shapes (except flat rolled sheet, plate, foil, and welded tube) in integrated mills.

Illustrative Examples:

Aluminum bar made by extruding purchased aluminum
Nails, aluminum, made in wire drawing plants
Rod made by extruding purchased aluminum
Structural shapes made by rolling purchased aluminum
Tube made by drawing or extruding purchased aluminum
Wire, bare, made in aluminum wire drawing plants


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
3314Nonferrous Metal (except Aluminum) Production and Processing TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in nonferrous metal (except aluminum) smelting, refining, rolling, drawing, extruding, and alloying.
33141Nonferrous Metal (except Aluminum) Smelting and Refining TSee industry description for 331410.
331410Nonferrous Metal (except Aluminum) Smelting and RefiningThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) smelting ores into nonferrous metals and/or (2) the primary refining of nonferrous metals (except aluminum) by electrolytic methods or other processes.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
33142Copper Rolling, Drawing, Extruding, and Alloying TSee industry description for 331420.
331420Copper Rolling, Drawing, Extruding, and AlloyingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) recovering copper or copper alloys from scraps; (2) alloying purchased copper; (3) rolling, drawing, or extruding shapes (e.g., bar, plate, sheet, strip, tube, wire) from purchased copper; and (4) recovering copper or copper alloys from scrap and rolling, drawing, or extruding shapes (e.g., bar, plate, sheet, strip, tube, wire).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
33149Nonferrous Metal (except Copper and Aluminum) Rolling, Drawing, Extruding, and Alloying TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) recovering nonferrous metals (except copper and aluminum) and nonferrous metal alloys from scrap; (2) alloying purchased nonferrous metals (except copper and aluminum); (3) rolling, drawing, and extruding shapes from purchased nonferrous metals (except copper and aluminum); and (4) recovering nonferrous metals from scrap (except copper and aluminum) and rolling, drawing, or extruding shapes in integrated facilities.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
331491Nonferrous Metal (except Copper and Aluminum) Rolling, Drawing, and ExtrudingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) rolling, drawing, or extruding shapes (e.g., bar, plate, sheet, strip, tube) from purchased nonferrous metals and/or (2) recovering nonferrous metals from scrap and rolling, drawing, and/or extruding shapes (e.g., bar, plate, sheet, strip, tube) in integrated mills.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
331492Secondary Smelting, Refining, and Alloying of Nonferrous Metal (except Copper and Aluminum)This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) alloying purchased nonferrous metals and/or (2) recovering nonferrous metals from scrap. Establishments in this industry make primary forms (e.g., bar, billet, bloom, cake, ingot, slab, slug, wire) using smelting or refining processes.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
3315Foundries TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in pouring molten metal into molds or dies to form castings. Establishments making castings and further manufacturing, such as machining or assembling, a specific manufactured product are classified in the industry of the finished product. Foundries may perform operations, such as cleaning and deburring, on the castings they manufacture. More involved processes, such as tapping, threading, milling, or machining to tight tolerances, that transform castings into more finished products are classified elsewhere in the Manufacturing sector based on the product made.

Establishments in this industry group make castings from purchased metals or in integrated secondary smelting and casting facilities. When the production of primary metals is combined with making castings, the establishment is classified in Subsector 331, Primary Metal Manufacturing, with the primary metal made.
33151Ferrous Metal Foundries TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in pouring molten iron and steel into molds of a desired shape to make castings. Establishments in this industry purchase iron and steel made in other establishments.

Cross-References.
331511Iron FoundriesThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in pouring molten pig iron or iron alloys into molds to manufacture castings (e.g., cast iron manhole covers, cast iron pipe, cast iron skillets). Establishments in this industry purchase iron made in other establishments.

Cross-References.
331512Steel Investment FoundriesThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing steel investment castings. Investment molds are formed by covering a wax shape with a refractory slurry. After the refractory slurry hardens, the wax is melted, leaving a seamless mold. Investment molds provide highly detailed, consistent castings. Establishments in this industry purchase steel made in other establishments.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
331513Steel Foundries (except Investment)This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing steel castings (except steel investment castings). Establishments in this industry purchase steel made in other establishments.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
33152Nonferrous Metal Foundries TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in pouring and/or introducing molten nonferrous metal, under high pressure, into metal molds or dies to manufacture castings. Establishments in this industry purchase nonferrous metals made in other establishments.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
331523Nonferrous Metal Die-Casting FoundriesThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in introducing molten nonferrous metal, under high pressure, into molds or dies to make nonferrous metal die-castings. Establishments in this industry purchase nonferrous metals made in other establishments.

Cross-references. Establishments primarily engaged in--
331524Aluminum Foundries (except Die-Casting)This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in pouring molten aluminum into molds to manufacture aluminum castings (except nonferrous die-castings). Establishments in this industry purchase aluminum made in other establishments.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
331529Other Nonferrous Metal Foundries (except Die-Casting)This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in pouring molten nonferrous metals (except aluminum) into molds to manufacture nonferrous castings (except nonferrous die-castings and aluminum castings). Establishments in this industry purchase nonferrous metals, such as copper, nickel, lead, and zinc, made in other establishments.

Cross-references. Establishments primarily engaged in--
332Fabricated Metal Product Manufacturing TIndustries in the Fabricated Metal Product Manufacturing subsector transform metal into intermediate or end products, other than machinery, computers and electronics, and metal furniture, or treat metals and metal formed products fabricated elsewhere. Important fabricated metal processes are forging, stamping, bending, forming, and machining, used to shape individual pieces of metal; and other processes, such as welding and assembling, used to join separate parts together. Establishments in this subsector may use one of these processes or a combination of these processes.

The NAICS structure for this subsector distinguishes the forging and stamping processes in a single industry. The remaining industries in the subsector group establishments based on similar combinations of processes used to make products.

The manufacturing performed in the Fabricated Metal Product Manufacturing subsector begins with manufactured metal shapes. The establishments in this subsector further fabricate the purchased metal shapes into a product. For instance, the Spring and Wire Product Manufacturing industry starts with wire and fabricates such items.

Within manufacturing there are other establishments that make the same products made by this subsector; only these establishments begin production further back in the production process. These establishments have a more integrated operation. For instance, one establishment may manufacture steel, draw it into wire, and make wire products in the same establishment. Such operations are classified in the Primary Metal Manufacturing subsector.
3321Forging and Stamping TNULL
33211Forging and Stamping TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) manufacturing forgings from purchased metals; (2) manufacturing metal custom roll forming products; (3) manufacturing metal stamped and spun products (except automotive, cans, coins); and (4) manufacturing powder metallurgy products. Establishments making metal forgings, metal stampings, and metal spun products and further manufacturing (e.g., machining, assembling) a specific manufactured product are classified in the industry of the finished product. Metal forging, metal stamping, and metal spun products establishments may perform surface finishing operations, such as cleaning and deburring, on the products they manufacture.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
332111Iron and Steel ForgingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing iron and steel forgings from purchased iron and steel by hammering mill shapes. Establishments making iron and steel forgings and further manufacturing (e.g., machining, assembling) a specific manufactured product are classified in the industry of the finished product. Iron and steel forging establishments may perform surface finishing operations, such as cleaning and deburring, on the forgings they manufacture.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
332112Nonferrous ForgingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing nonferrous forgings from purchased nonferrous metals by hammering mill shapes. Establishments making nonferrous forgings and further manufacturing (e.g., machining, assembling) a specific manufactured product are classified in the industry of the finished product. Nonferrous forging establishments may perform surface finishing operations, such as cleaning and deburring, on the forgings they manufacture.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
332114Custom Roll FormingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in custom roll forming metal products by use of rotary motion of rolls with various contours to bend or shape the products.

Cross-References.
332117Powder Metallurgy Part ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing powder metallurgy products using any of the various powder metallurgy processing techniques, such as pressing and sintering or metal injection molding. Establishments in this industry generally make a wide range of parts on a job or order basis.
332119Metal Crown, Closure, and Other Metal Stamping (except Automotive)This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) stamping metal crowns and closures, such as bottle caps and home canning lids and rings, and/or (2) manufacturing other unfinished metal stampings and spinning unfinished metal products (except automotive, cans, and coins). Establishments making metal stampings and metal spun products and further manufacturing (e.g., machining, assembling) a specific product are classified in the industry of the finished product. Metal stamping and metal spun products establishments may perform surface finishing operations, such as cleaning and deburring, on the products they manufacture.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
3322Cutlery and Handtool Manufacturing TNULL
33221Cutlery and Handtool Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) manufacturing metal kitchen cookware (except by casting (e.g., cast iron skillets) or stamped without further fabrication), utensils, and/or nonprecious and precious plated metal cutlery and flatware; (2) manufacturing saw blades, all types (including those for power sawing machines); and (3) manufacturing nonpowered handtools and edge tools.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
332215Metal Kitchen Cookware, Utensil, Cutlery, and Flatware (except Precious) ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing metal kitchen cookware (except by casting (e.g., cast iron skillets) or stamped without further fabrication), utensils, and/or nonprecious and precious plated metal cutlery and flatware.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
332216Saw Blade and Handtool ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) manufacturing saw blades, all types (including those for power sawing machines) and/or (2) manufacturing nonpowered handtools and edge tools.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
3323Architectural and Structural Metals Manufacturing TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing one or more of the following: (1) prefabricated metal buildings, panels and sections; (2) structural metal products; (3) metal plate work products; (4) metal framed windows (i.e., typically using purchased glass) and metal doors; (5) sheet metal work; and (6) ornamental and architectural metal products.
33231Plate Work and Fabricated Structural Product Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing one or more of the following: (1) prefabricated metal buildings, panels and sections; (2) structural metal products; and (3) metal plate work products.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
332311Prefabricated Metal Building and Component ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing prefabricated metal buildings, panels, and sections.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
332312Fabricated Structural Metal ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in fabricating structural metal products, such as assemblies of concrete reinforcing bars and fabricated bar joists.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
332313Plate Work ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing fabricated metal plate work by cutting, punching, bending, shaping, and welding purchased metal plate.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
33232Ornamental and Architectural Metal Products Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing one or more of the following: (1) metal framed windows (i.e., typically using purchased glass) and metal doors; (2) sheet metal work; and (3) ornamental and architectural metal products.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
332321Metal Window and Door ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing metal framed windows (i.e., typically using purchased glass) and metal doors. Examples of products made by these establishments are metal door frames; metal framed window and door screens; and metal molding and trim (except automotive).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
332322Sheet Metal Work ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing sheet metal work (except stampings).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
332323Ornamental and Architectural Metal Work ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing ornamental and architectural metal work, such as staircases, metal open steel flooring, fire escapes, railings, and scaffolding.

Cross-References.
3324Boiler, Tank, and Shipping Container Manufacturing TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in one of the following: (1) manufacturing power boilers and heat exchangers; (2) cutting, forming, and joining heavy gauge metal to manufacture tanks, vessels, and other containers; or (3) forming light gauge metal containers.
33241Power Boiler and Heat Exchanger Manufacturing TSee industry description for 332410.
332410Power Boiler and Heat Exchanger ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing power boilers and heat exchangers. Establishments in this industry may perform installation in addition to manufacturing power boilers and heat exchangers.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
33242Metal Tank (Heavy Gauge) Manufacturing TSee industry description for 332420.
332420Metal Tank (Heavy Gauge) ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in cutting, forming, and joining heavy gauge metal to manufacture tanks, vessels, and other containers.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
33243Metal Can, Box, and Other Metal Container (Light Gauge) Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in forming light gauge metal containers.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
332431Metal Can ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing metal cans, lids, and ends.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
332439Other Metal Container ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing metal (light gauge) containers (except cans).

Illustrative Examples:

Light gauge metal bins manufacturing
Light gauge metal drums manufacturing
Light gauge metal garbage cans manufacturing
Light gauge metal lunch boxes manufacturing
Light gauge metal mailboxes manufacturing
Light gauge metal tool boxes manufacturing
Light gauge metal vats manufacturing
Metal air cargo containers manufacturing
Metal barrels manufacturing
Vacuum bottles and jugs manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
3325Hardware Manufacturing TNULL
33251Hardware Manufacturing TSee industry description for 332510.
332510Hardware ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing metal hardware, such as metal hinges, metal handles, keys, and locks (except coin-operated, time locks).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
3326Spring and Wire Product Manufacturing TNULL
33261Spring and Wire Product Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) manufacturing steel springs by forming, such as cutting, bending, and heat winding, metal rod or strip stock and/or (2) manufacturing wire springs and fabricated wire products from wire drawn elsewhere (except watch and clock springs).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
332613Spring ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing springs from purchased wire, strip, or rod.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
332618Other Fabricated Wire Product ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing fabricated wire products (except springs) made from purchased wire.

Illustrative Examples:

Barbed wire made from purchased wire
Chain link fencing and fence gates made from purchased wire
Metal baskets made from purchased wire
Nails, brads, and staples made from purchased wire
Noninsulated wire cable made from purchased wire
Paper clips made from purchased wire
Woven wire cloth made from purchased wire


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
3327Machine Shops; Turned Product; and Screw, Nut, and Bolt Manufacturing TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in one of the following: (1) operating machine shops primarily engaged in machining metal and plastic parts and parts of other composite materials on a job or order basis; (2) machining precision turned products; or (3) manufacturing metal bolts, nuts, screws, rivets, and other industrial fasteners.
33271Machine Shops TSee industry description for 332710.
332710Machine ShopsThis industry comprises establishments known as machine shops primarily engaged in machining metal and plastic parts and parts of other composite materials on a job or order basis. Generally machine shop jobs are low volume using machine tools, such as lathes (including computer numerically controlled); automatic screw machines; and machines for boring, grinding, milling, and additive manufacturing.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
33272Turned Product and Screw, Nut, and Bolt Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) machining precision turned products or (2) manufacturing metal bolts, nuts, screws, rivets, and other industrial fasteners. Included in this industry are establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing parts for machinery and equipment on a custom basis.

Cross-References.
332721Precision Turned Product ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments known as precision turned manufacturers primarily engaged in machining precision products of all materials on a job or order basis. Generally precision turned product jobs are large volume using machines, such as automatic screw machines, rotary transfer machines, computer numerically controlled (CNC) lathes, or turning centers.

Cross-References.
332722Bolt, Nut, Screw, Rivet, and Washer ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing metal bolts, nuts, screws, rivets, washers, and other industrial fasteners using machines, such as headers, threaders, and nut forming machines.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
3328Coating, Engraving, Heat Treating, and Allied Activities TNULL
33281Coating, Engraving, Heat Treating, and Allied Activities TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) heat treating metals and metal products; (2) enameling, lacquering, and varnishing metals and metal products; (3) hot dip galvanizing metals and metal products; (4) engraving, chasing, or etching metals and metal products (except jewelry; personal goods carried on or about the person, such as compacts and cigarette cases; precious metal products (except precious plated flatware and other plated ware); and printing plates); (5) powder coating metals and metal products; (6) electroplating, plating, anodizing, coloring, and finishing metals and metal products; and (7) providing other metal surfacing services for the trade. Establishments in this industry coat, engrave, and heat treat metals and metal formed products fabricated elsewhere.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
332811Metal Heat TreatingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in heat treating, such as annealing, tempering, and brazing, and cryogenically treating metals and metal products for the trade.

Cross-References.
332812Metal Coating, Engraving (except Jewelry and Silverware), and Allied Services to ManufacturersThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) enameling, lacquering, and varnishing metals and metal products; (2) hot dip galvanizing metals and metal products; (3) engraving, chasing, or etching metals and metal products (except jewelry; personal goods carried on or about the person, such as compacts and cigarette cases; precious metal products (except precious plated flatware and other plated ware); and printing plates); (4) powder coating metals and metal products; and (5) providing other metal surfacing services for the trade. Included in this industry are establishments that perform these processes on other materials, such as plastics, in addition to metals.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
332813Electroplating, Plating, Polishing, Anodizing, and ColoringThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in electroplating, plating, anodizing, coloring, buffing, polishing, cleaning, and sandblasting metals and metal products for the trade. Included in this industry are establishments that perform these processes on other materials, such as plastics, in addition to metals.

Cross-References.
3329Other Fabricated Metal Product Manufacturing TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing fabricated metal products (except forgings and stampings, cutlery and handtools, architectural and structural metals, boilers, tanks, shipping containers, hardware, spring and wire products, machine shop products, turned products, screws, and nuts and bolts).
33291Metal Valve Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing one or more of the following metal valves: (1) industrial valves; (2) fluid power valves and hose fittings; (3) plumbing fixture fittings and trim; and (4) other metal valves and pipe fittings.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
332911Industrial Valve ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing industrial valves and valves for water works and municipal water systems.

Illustrative Examples:

Complete fire hydrants manufacturing
Industrial-type ball valves manufacturing
Industrial-type butterfly valves manufacturing
Industrial-type check valves manufacturing
Industrial-type gate valves manufacturing
Industrial-type globe valves manufacturing
Industrial-type plug valves manufacturing
Industrial-type solenoid valves (except fluid power) manufacturing
Industrial-type steam traps manufacturing
Valves for nuclear applications manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
332912Fluid Power Valve and Hose Fitting ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing fluid power valves and hose fittings.

Illustrative Examples:

Fluid power aircraft subassemblies manufacturing
Hose assemblies for fluid power systems manufacturing
Hydraulic and pneumatic hose and tube fittings manufacturing
Hydraulic and pneumatic valves manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
332913Plumbing Fixture Fitting and Trim ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing metal and plastics plumbing fixture fittings and trim, such as faucets, flush valves, and shower heads.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
332919Other Metal Valve and Pipe Fitting ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing metal valves (except industrial valves, fluid power valves, fluid power hose fittings, and plumbing fixture fittings and trim).

Illustrative Examples:

Aerosol valves manufacturing
Firefighting nozzles manufacturing
Lawn hose nozzles manufacturing
Lawn sprinklers manufacturing
Metal hose couplings (except fluid power) manufacturing
Metal pipe flanges and flange unions manufacturing
Plumbing and heating inline valves (e.g., check, cutoff, stop) manufacturing
Water traps manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
33299All Other Fabricated Metal Product Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing fabricated metal products (except forgings and stampings, cutlery and handtools, architectural and structural metal products, boilers, tanks, shipping containers, hardware, spring and wire products, machine shop products, turned products, screws, nuts and bolts, and metal valves).

Illustrative Examples:

Ammunition manufacturing
Ball and roller bearing manufacturing
Enameled iron and metal sanitary ware manufacturing
Fabricated pipe and pipe fittings made from purchased metal pipe
Foil containers (except bags) manufacturing
Industrial pattern manufacturing
Metal safes manufacturing
Portable metal ladders manufacturing
Small arms and other ordnance manufacturing
Steel wool manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
332991Ball and Roller Bearing ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing ball and roller bearings of all materials.

Cross-References.
332992Small Arms Ammunition ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing small arms ammunition.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
332993Ammunition (except Small Arms) ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing ammunition (except small arms). Examples of products made by these establishments are bombs, depth charges, rockets (except guided missiles), grenades, mines, and torpedoes.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
332994Small Arms, Ordnance, and Ordnance Accessories ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing small arms, other ordnance, and/or ordnance accessories.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
332996Fabricated Pipe and Pipe Fitting ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in fabricating, such as cutting, threading, and bending, metal pipes and pipe fittings made from purchased metal pipe.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
332999All Other Miscellaneous Fabricated Metal Product ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing fabricated metal products (except forgings and stampings, cutlery and handtools, architectural and structural metals, boilers, tanks, shipping containers, hardware, spring and wire products, machine shop products, turned products, screws, nuts and bolts, metal valves, ball and roller bearings, ammunition, small arms and other ordnances and accessories, and fabricated pipes and pipe fittings).

Illustrative Examples:

Foil containers (except bags) manufacturing
Industrial pattern manufacturing
Metal hair curlers manufacturing
Metal ironing boards manufacturing
Metal pallets manufacturing
Metal pipe hangers and supports manufacturing
Metal safes manufacturing
Metal vaults (except burial) manufacturing
Permanent metallic magnets manufacturing
Portable metal ladders manufacturing
Sanitary ware (e.g., bathtubs, lavatories, sinks), metal and enameled metal, manufacturing
Steel wool manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
333Machinery Manufacturing TIndustries in the Machinery Manufacturing subsector create end products that apply mechanical force, for example, the application of gears and levers, to perform work. Some important processes for the manufacture of machinery are forging, stamping, bending, forming, and machining that are used to shape individual pieces of metal. Processes, such as welding and assembling are used to join separate parts together. Although these processes are similar to those used in metal fabricating establishments, machinery manufacturing is different because it typically employs multiple metal forming processes in manufacturing the various parts of the machine. Moreover, complex assembly operations are an inherent part of the production process.

In general, design considerations are very important in machinery production. Establishments specialize in making machinery designed for particular applications. Thus, design is considered to be part of the production process for the purpose of implementing NAICS. The NAICS structure reflects this by defining industries and industry groups that make machinery for different applications. A broad distinction exists between machinery that is generally used in a variety of industrial applications (i.e., general purpose machinery) and machinery that is designed to be used in a particular industry (i.e., special purpose machinery). Three industry groups consist of special purpose machinery--Agricultural, Construction, and Mining Machinery Manufacturing; Industrial Machinery Manufacturing; and Commercial and Service Industry Machinery Manufacturing. The other industry groups make general purpose machinery: Ventilation, Heating, Air-Conditioning, and Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Manufacturing; Metalworking Machinery Manufacturing; Engine, Turbine, and Power Transmission Equipment Manufacturing; and Other General Purpose Machinery Manufacturing.
3331Agriculture, Construction, and Mining Machinery Manufacturing TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing one or more of the following: (1) farm machinery and equipment, power mowing equipment, and other powered home lawn and garden equipment; (2) construction machinery, surface mining machinery, and logging equipment; and (3) oil and gas field and underground mining machinery and equipment.
33311Agricultural Implement Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing farm machinery and equipment, powered mowing equipment, and other powered home lawn and garden equipment.

Illustrative Examples:

Combines (i.e., harvester-threshers) manufacturing
Cotton ginning machinery manufacturing
Fertilizing machinery, farm-type, manufacturing
Haying machines manufacturing
Milking machines manufacturing
Planting machines, farm-type, manufacturing
Plows, farm-type, manufacturing
Poultry brooders, feeders, and waterers manufacturing
Powered lawnmowers manufacturing
Snowblowers and throwers, residential-type, manufacturing
Tractors and attachments, lawn and garden-type and farm-type, manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
333111Farm Machinery and Equipment ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing agricultural and farm machinery and equipment, and other turf and grounds care equipment, including planting, harvesting, and grass mowing equipment (except lawn and garden-type).

Illustrative Examples:

Combines (i.e., harvester-threshers) manufacturing
Cotton ginning machinery manufacturing
Feed processing equipment, farm-type, manufacturing
Fertilizing machinery, farm-type, manufacturing
Grass mowing equipment (except lawn and garden) manufacturing
Haying machines manufacturing
Milking machines manufacturing
Planting machines, farm-type, manufacturing
Plows, farm-type, manufacturing
Poultry brooders, feeders, and waterers manufacturing
Tractors and attachments, farm-type, manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
333112Lawn and Garden Tractor and Home Lawn and Garden Equipment ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing powered lawnmowers, lawn and garden tractors, and other home lawn and garden equipment, such as tillers, shredders, yard vacuums, and leaf blowers.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
33312Construction Machinery Manufacturing TSee industry description for 333120.
333120Construction Machinery ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing construction machinery, surface mining machinery, and logging equipment.

Illustrative Examples:

Backhoes manufacturing
Bulldozers manufacturing
Construction and surface mining-type rock drill bits manufacturing
Construction-type tractors and attachments manufacturing
Off-highway trucks manufacturing
Pile-driving equipment manufacturing
Portable crushing, pulverizing, and screening machinery manufacturing
Powered post hole diggers manufacturing
Road graders manufacturing
Surface mining machinery (except drilling) manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
33313Mining and Oil and Gas Field Machinery Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing oil and gas field and underground mining machinery and equipment.

Illustrative Examples:

Coal breakers, cutters, and pulverizers manufacturing
Core drills, underground mining-type, manufacturing
Mineral processing and beneficiating machinery manufacturing
Mining cars manufacturing
Oil and gas field-type derricks manufacturing
Oil and gas field-type drilling machinery and equipment (except offshore floating platforms) manufacturing
Stationary rock crushing machinery manufacturing
Water well drilling machinery manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
333131Mining Machinery and Equipment ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) manufacturing underground mining machinery and equipment, such as coal breakers, mining cars, core drills, coal cutters, and rock drills, and (2) manufacturing mineral beneficiating machinery and equipment used in surface or underground mines.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
333132Oil and Gas Field Machinery and Equipment ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) manufacturing oil and gas field machinery and equipment, such as oil and gas field drilling machinery and equipment; oil and gas field production machinery and equipment; and oil and gas field derricks, and (2) manufacturing water well drilling machinery.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
3332Industrial Machinery Manufacturing TNULL
33324Industrial Machinery Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing industrial machinery, such as food and beverage manufacturing machinery, semiconductor manufacturing machinery, sawmill and woodworking machinery (except handheld), machinery for making paper and paper products, printing and binding machinery and equipment, textile making machinery, and machinery for making plastics and rubber products.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
333241Food Product Machinery ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing food and beverage manufacturing-type machinery and equipment, such as dairy product plant machinery and equipment (e.g., homogenizers, pasteurizers, ice cream freezers), bakery machinery and equipment (e.g., dough mixers, bake ovens, pastry rolling machines), meat and poultry processing and preparation machinery, and other commercial food products machinery (e.g., slicers, choppers, and mixers).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
333242Semiconductor Machinery ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing wafer processing equipment, semiconductor assembly and packaging equipment, and other semiconductor making machinery.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
333243Sawmill, Woodworking, and Paper Machinery ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) manufacturing sawmill and woodworking machinery (except handheld), such as circular and band sawing equipment, planing machinery, and sanding machinery, and/or (2) manufacturing paper industry machinery for making paper and paper products, such as pulp making machinery, paper and paperboard making machinery, and paper and paperboard converting machinery.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
333244Printing Machinery and Equipment ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing printing and bookbinding machinery and equipment, such as printing presses, typesetting machinery, and bindery machinery.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
333249Other Industrial Machinery ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing industrial machinery (except agricultural and farm-type; construction and mining machinery; food manufacturing-type machinery; semiconductor making machinery; sawmill, woodworking, and paper making machinery; and printing machinery and equipment).

Illustrative Examples:

Additive manufacturing machinery manufacturing
Chemical processing machinery and equipment manufacturing
Cigarette making machinery manufacturing
Glass making machinery (e.g., blowing, forming, molding) manufacturing
Petroleum refining machinery manufacturing
Plastics working machinery manufacturing
Rubber working machinery manufacturing
Sewing machines (including household-type) manufacturing
Shoe making and repairing machinery manufacturing
Tannery machinery manufacturing
Textile making machinery manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
3333Commercial and Service Industry Machinery Manufacturing TNULL
33331Commercial and Service Industry Machinery Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing commercial and service industry machinery, such as optical instruments, photographic and photocopying equipment, automatic vending machinery, commercial laundry and drycleaning machinery, office machinery, automotive maintenance equipment (except mechanics’ handtools), and commercial-type cooking equipment.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
333314Optical Instrument and Lens ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) manufacturing optical instruments and lenses, such as binoculars, microscopes (except electron, proton), telescopes, prisms, and lenses (except ophthalmic); (2) coating or polishing lenses (except ophthalmic); and (3) mounting lenses (except ophthalmic).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
333316Photographic and Photocopying Equipment ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing photographic and photocopying equipment, such as cameras (except television and video), projectors, film developing equipment, photocopying equipment, and microfilm equipment.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
333318Other Commercial and Service Industry Machinery ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing commercial and service industry equipment (except optical instruments and lenses, and photographic and photocopying equipment).

Illustrative Examples:

Calculators manufacturing
Carnival and amusement park rides manufacturing
Car washing machinery manufacturing
Commercial-type coffee makers and urns manufacturing
Commercial-type cooking equipment (i.e., fryers, microwave ovens, ovens, ranges) manufacturing
Industrial and commercial-type vacuum cleaners manufacturing
Laundry machinery and equipment (except household-type) manufacturing
Mechanical carpet sweepers manufacturing
Motor vehicle alignment equipment manufacturing
Power washer cleaning equipment manufacturing
Teaching machines (e.g., flight simulators) manufacturing
Vending machines manufacturing
Water treatment equipment manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
3334Ventilation, Heating, Air-Conditioning, and Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Manufacturing TNULL
33341Ventilation, Heating, Air-Conditioning, and Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing ventilating, heating, air-conditioning, and commercial and industrial refrigeration and freezer equipment.

Illustrative Examples:

Air-conditioner filters manufacturing
Air-conditioning and warm air heating combination units manufacturing
Attic fans manufacturing
Dust and fume collecting equipment manufacturing
Gas fireplaces manufacturing
Heating boilers manufacturing
Industrial and commercial-type fans manufacturing
Refrigerated counter and display cases manufacturing
Refrigerated drinking fountains manufacturing
Space heaters (except portable electric) manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
333413Industrial and Commercial Fan and Blower and Air Purification Equipment ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) manufacturing stationary air purification equipment, such as industrial dust and fume collection equipment, electrostatic precipitation equipment, warm air furnace filters, air washers, and other dust collection equipment, and/or (2) manufacturing attic fans and industrial and commercial fans and blowers, such as commercial exhaust fans and commercial ventilating fans.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
333414Heating Equipment (except Warm Air Furnaces) ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing heating equipment (except electric and warm air furnaces), such as heating boilers, heating stoves, floor and wall furnaces, and wall and baseboard heating units.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
333415Air-Conditioning and Warm Air Heating Equipment and Commercial and Industrial Refrigeration Equipment ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) manufacturing air-conditioning (except motor vehicle) and warm air furnace equipment and/or (2) manufacturing commercial and industrial refrigeration and freezer equipment.

Illustrative Examples:

Air-conditioning and warm air heating combination units manufacturing
Air-conditioning compressors (except motor vehicle) manufacturing
Air-conditioning condensers and condensing units manufacturing
Dehumidifiers (except portable electric) manufacturing
Heat pumps manufacturing
Humidifying equipment (except portable) manufacturing
Refrigerated counter and display cases manufacturing
Refrigerated drinking fountains manufacturing
Snow making machinery manufacturing
Soda fountain cooling and dispensing equipment manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
3335Metalworking Machinery Manufacturing TNULL
33351Metalworking Machinery Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing metalworking machinery, such as metal cutting and metal forming machine tools; cutting tools; accessories for metalworking machinery; special dies, tools, jigs, and fixtures; industrial molds; rolling mill machinery; assembly machinery; coil handling, conversion, or straightening equipment; and wire drawing and fabricating machines.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
333511Industrial Mold ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing industrial molds for casting metals or forming other materials, such as plastics, glass, or rubber.

Cross-References.
333514Special Die and Tool, Die Set, Jig, and Fixture ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments, known as tool and die shops, primarily engaged in manufacturing special tools and fixtures, such as cutting dies and jigs.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
333515Cutting Tool and Machine Tool Accessory ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing accessories and attachments for metal cutting and metal forming machine tools.

Illustrative Examples:

Knives and bits for metalworking lathes, planers, and shapers manufacturing
Measuring attachments (e.g., sine bars) for machine tool manufacturing
Metalworking drill bits manufacturing
Taps and dies (i.e., machine tool accessories) manufacturing


Cross-References.
333517Machine Tool ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) manufacturing metal cutting machine tools (except handtools) and/or (2) manufacturing metal forming machine tools (except handtools), such as punching, sheering, bending, forming, pressing, forging and die-casting machines.

Illustrative Examples:

Bending and forming machines, metalworking, manufacturing
Buffing and polishing machines, metalworking, manufacturing
Drilling machines, metalworking, manufacturing
Grinding machines, metalworking, manufacturing
Home workshop metal cutting machine tools (except handtools, welding equipment) manufacturing
Metalworking lathes manufacturing
Milling machines, metalworking, manufacturing
Stamping machines, metalworking, manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
333519Rolling Mill and Other Metalworking Machinery ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing rolling mill machinery and equipment and/or other metalworking machinery (except industrial molds; special dies and tools, die sets, jigs, and fixtures; cutting tools and machine tool accessories; and machine tools).

Illustrative Examples:

Assembly machines manufacturing
Cradle assemblies machinery (i.e., wire making equipment) manufacturing
Metalworking coil winding and cutting machinery manufacturing
Rolling mill roll machines, metalworking, manufacturing
Wire drawing and fabricating machinery and equipment (except dies) manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
3336Engine, Turbine, and Power Transmission Equipment Manufacturing TNULL
33361Engine, Turbine, and Power Transmission Equipment Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing turbines, power transmission equipment, and internal combustion engines (except automotive gasoline and aircraft).

Illustrative Examples:

Clutches and brakes (except electromagnetic industrial controls, motor vehicle) manufacturing
Diesel and semidiesel engines manufacturing
Electric outboard motors manufacturing
Internal combustion engines for hybrid drive systems (except automotive) manufacturing
Plain bearings (except internal combustion engine) manufacturing
Plain bushings (except internal combustion engine) manufacturing
Power transmission pulleys manufacturing
Speed changers (i.e., power transmission equipment) manufacturing
Speed reducers (i.e., power transmission equipment) manufacturing
Turbine generator set units manufacturing
Universal joints (except aircraft, motor vehicle) manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
333611Turbine and Turbine Generator Set Units ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing turbines (except aircraft); and complete turbine generator set units, such as steam, hydraulic, gas, and wind.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
333612Speed Changer, Industrial High-Speed Drive, and Gear ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing gears, speed changers, and industrial high-speed drives (except hydrostatic).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
333613Mechanical Power Transmission Equipment ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing mechanical power transmission equipment (except motor vehicle and aircraft), such as plain bearings, clutches (except motor vehicle and electromagnetic industrial control), couplings, joints, and drive chains.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
333618Other Engine Equipment ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing internal combustion engines (except automotive gasoline and aircraft).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
3339Other General Purpose Machinery Manufacturing TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing pumps and compressors, material handling equipment, and all other general purpose machinery (except ventilation, heating, air-conditioning, and commercial refrigeration equipment; metalworking machinery; and engines, turbines, and power transmission equipment).
33391Pump and Compressor Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing pumps and compressors, such as general purpose air and gas compressors, nonagricultural spraying and dusting equipment, general purpose pumps and pumping equipment (except fluid power pumps and motors), and measuring and dispensing pumps.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
333912Air and Gas Compressor ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing general purpose air and gas compressors, such as reciprocating compressors, centrifugal compressors, vacuum pumps (except laboratory), and nonagricultural spraying and dusting compressors and spray gun units.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
333914Measuring, Dispensing, and Other Pumping Equipment ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) manufacturing measuring and dispensing pumps, such as gasoline pumps and lubricating oil measuring and dispensing pumps and/or (2) manufacturing general purpose pumps and pumping equipment (except fluid power pumps and motors), such as reciprocating pumps, turbine pumps, centrifugal pumps, rotary pumps, diaphragm pumps, domestic water system pumps, oil well and oil field pumps, and sump pumps.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
33392Material Handling Equipment Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing material handling equipment, such as elevators and moving stairs; conveyors and conveying equipment; overhead traveling cranes, hoists, and monorail systems; and industrial trucks, tractors, trailers, and stacker machinery.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
333921Elevator and Moving Stairway ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing elevators and moving stairways.

Illustrative Examples:

Automobile lifts (i.e., garage-type, service station) manufacturing
Escalators manufacturing
Moving walkways manufacturing
Passenger and freight elevators manufacturing


Cross-References.
333922Conveyor and Conveying Equipment ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing conveyors and conveying equipment, such as gravity conveyors, trolley conveyors, tow conveyors, pneumatic tube conveyors, carousel conveyors, farm conveyors, and belt conveyors.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
333923Overhead Traveling Crane, Hoist, and Monorail System ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing overhead traveling cranes, hoists, and monorail systems.

Illustrative Examples:

Aerial work platforms manufacturing
Automobile wrecker (i.e., tow truck) hoists manufacturing
Block and tackle manufacturing
Metal pulleys (except power transmission) manufacturing
Winches manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
333924Industrial Truck, Tractor, Trailer, and Stacker Machinery ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing industrial trucks, tractors, trailers, and stackers (i.e., truck-type) such as forklifts, pallet loaders and unloaders, and portable loading docks.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
33399All Other General Purpose Machinery Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing general purpose machinery (except ventilation, heating, air-conditioning, and commercial refrigeration equipment; metalworking machinery; engines, turbines, and power transmission equipment; pumps and compressors; and material handling equipment).

Illustrative Examples:

Automatic fire sprinkler systems manufacturing
Bridge and gate lifting machinery manufacturing
Fluid power cylinders manufacturing
Fluid power pumps manufacturing
Hydraulic and pneumatic jacks manufacturing
Industrial-type furnaces manufacturing
Packaging machinery manufacturing
Power-driven handtools manufacturing
Scales manufacturing
Welding equipment manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
333991Power-Driven Handtool ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing power-driven (e.g., battery, corded, pneumatic) handtools, such as drills, screwguns, circular saws, chain saws, staplers, and nailers.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
333992Welding and Soldering Equipment ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing welding and soldering equipment and accessories (except transformers), such as arc, resistance, gas, plasma, laser, electron beam, and ultrasonic welding equipment; welding electrodes; coated or cored welding wire; and soldering equipment (except handheld).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
333993Packaging Machinery ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing packaging machinery, such as wrapping, bottling, canning, and labeling machinery.
333994Industrial Process Furnace and Oven ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing industrial process ovens, induction and dielectric heating equipment, and kilns (except cement, chemical, wood). Included in this industry are establishments manufacturing laboratory furnaces and ovens.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
333995Fluid Power Cylinder and Actuator ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing fluid power (i.e., hydraulic and pneumatic) cylinders and actuators.
333996Fluid Power Pump and Motor ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing fluid power (i.e., hydraulic and pneumatic) pumps and motors.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
333997Scale and Balance ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing scales and balances, including those used in laboratories.
333999All Other Miscellaneous General Purpose Machinery ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing general purpose machinery (except ventilating, heating, air-conditioning, and commercial refrigeration equipment; metalworking machinery; engines, turbines, and power transmission equipment; pumps and compressors; material handling equipment; power-driven handtools; welding and soldering equipment; packaging machinery; industrial process furnaces and ovens; fluid power cylinders and actuators; fluid power pumps and motors; and scales and balances).

Illustrative Examples:

Automatic fire sprinkler systems manufacturing
Baling machinery (e.g., paper, scrap metal) manufacturing
Bridge and gate lifting machinery manufacturing
Centrifuges, industrial and laboratory-type, manufacturing
Cremating ovens manufacturing
General purpose-type sieves and screening equipment manufacturing
Hydraulic and pneumatic jacks manufacturing
Industrial and general purpose-type filters (except internal combustion engine, warm air furnace) manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
334Computer and Electronic Product Manufacturing TIndustries in the Computer and Electronic Product Manufacturing subsector group establishments that manufacture computers, computer peripherals, communications equipment, and similar electronic products, and establishments that manufacture components for such products. The Computer and Electronic Product Manufacturing industries have been combined in the hierarchy of NAICS because of the economic significance they have attained. Their rapid growth suggests that they will become even more important to the economies of all three North American countries in the future, and in addition their manufacturing processes are fundamentally different from the manufacturing processes of other machinery and equipment. The design and use of integrated circuits and the application of highly specialized miniaturization technologies are common elements in the production technologies of the Computer and Electronic Product Manufacturing subsector. Convergence of technology motivates this NAICS subsector. Digitalization of sound recording, for example, causes both the medium (the compact disc) and the equipment to resemble the technologies for recording, storing, transmitting, and manipulating data. Communications technology and equipment have been converging with computer technology. When technologically-related components are in the same sector, it makes it easier to adjust the classification for future changes, without needing to redefine its basic structure. The creation of the Computer and Electronic Product Manufacturing subsector assists in delineating new and emerging industries because the activities that will serve as the probable sources of new industries, such as computer manufacturing and communications equipment manufacturing, or computers and audio equipment, are brought together. As new activities emerge, they are less likely to cross the subsector boundaries of the classification.
3341Computer and Peripheral Equipment Manufacturing TNULL
33411Computer and Peripheral Equipment Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing and/or assembling electronic computers, such as mainframes, personal computers, workstations, laptops, and computer servers; and computer peripheral equipment, such as storage devices, printers, monitors, and input/output devices and terminals. Computers can be analog, digital, or hybrid. Digital computers, the most common type, are devices that do all of the following: (1) store the processing program or programs and the data immediately necessary for the execution of the program; (2) can be freely programmed in accordance with the requirements of the user; (3) perform arithmetical computations specified by the user; and (4) execute, without human intervention, a processing program that requires the computer to modify its execution by logical decision during the processing run. Analog computers are capable of simulating mathematical models and comprise at least analog, control, and programming elements.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
334111Electronic Computer ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing and/or assembling electronic computers, such as mainframes, personal computers, workstations, laptops, and computer servers. Computers can be analog, digital, or hybrid. Digital computers, the most common type, are devices that do all of the following: (1) store the processing program or programs and the data immediately necessary for the execution of the program; (2) can be freely programmed in accordance with the requirements of the user; (3) perform arithmetical computations specified by the user; and (4) execute, without human intervention, a processing program that requires the computer to modify its execution by logical decision during the processing run. Analog computers are capable of simulating mathematical models and contain at least analog, control, and programming elements. The manufacture of computers includes the assembly or integration of processors, coprocessors, memory, storage, and input/output devices into a user-programmable final product.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
334112Computer Storage Device ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing computer storage devices that allow the storage and retrieval of data from a phase change, magnetic, optical, or magnetic/optical media. Examples of products made by these establishments are CD-ROM drives, floppy disk drives, hard disk drives, and tape storage and backup units.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
334118Computer Terminal and Other Computer Peripheral Equipment ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing computer terminals and other computer peripheral equipment (except storage devices).

Illustrative Examples:

Automatic teller machines (ATM) manufacturing
Computer terminals manufacturing
Joystick devices manufacturing
Keyboards, computer peripheral equipment, manufacturing
Monitors, computer peripheral equipment, manufacturing
Mouse devices, computer peripheral equipment, manufacturing
Optical readers and scanners manufacturing
Plotters, computer, manufacturing
Point-of-sale terminals manufacturing
Printers, computer, manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
3342Communications Equipment Manufacturing TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing wire telephone and data communications equipment, radio and television broadcast and wireless communications equipment, and all other communications equipment.
33421Telephone Apparatus Manufacturing TSee industry description for 334210.
334210Telephone Apparatus ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing wire telephone and data communications equipment. These products may be stand-alone or board-level components of a larger system. Examples of products made by these establishments are central office switching equipment, cordless and wire telephones (except cellular), PBX equipment, telephone answering machines, LAN modems, multi-user modems, and other data communications equipment, such as bridges, routers, and gateways.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
33422Radio and Television Broadcasting and Wireless Communications Equipment Manufacturing TSee industry description for 334220.
334220Radio and Television Broadcasting and Wireless Communications Equipment ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing radio and television broadcast and wireless communications equipment. Examples of products made by these establishments are transmitting and receiving antennas, cable television equipment, GPS equipment, pagers, cellular phones, mobile communications equipment, and radio and television studio and broadcasting equipment.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
33429Other Communications Equipment Manufacturing TSee industry description for 334290.
334290Other Communications Equipment ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing communications equipment (except telephone apparatus, radio and television broadcast equipment, and wireless communications equipment).

Illustrative Examples:

Fire detection and alarm systems manufacturing
Intercom systems and equipment manufacturing
Signals (e.g., highway, pedestrian, railway, traffic) manufacturing
Video-based stadium displays manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
3343Audio and Video Equipment Manufacturing TNULL
33431Audio and Video Equipment Manufacturing TSee industry description for 334310.
334310Audio and Video Equipment ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing electronic audio and video equipment for home entertainment, motor vehicles, and public address and musical instrument amplification. Examples of products made by these establishments are digital video recorders, televisions, stereo equipment, speaker systems, household-type video cameras, jukeboxes, and amplifiers for musical instruments and public address systems.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
3344Semiconductor and Other Electronic Component Manufacturing TNULL
33441Semiconductor and Other Electronic Component Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing semiconductors and other components for electronic applications. Examples of products made by these establishments are capacitors, resistors, microprocessors, bare and loaded printed circuit boards, electron tubes, electronic connectors, and computer modems.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
334412Bare Printed Circuit Board ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing bare (i.e., rigid or flexible) printed circuit boards without mounted electronic components. These establishments print, perforate, plate, screen, etch, or photoprint interconnecting pathways for electric current on laminates.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
334413Semiconductor and Related Device ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing semiconductors and related solid-state devices. Examples of products made by these establishments are integrated circuits, memory chips, microprocessors, diodes, transistors, solar cells and other optoelectronic devices.
334416Capacitor, Resistor, Coil, Transformer, and Other Inductor ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) manufacturing electronic fixed and variable capacitors and condensers; (2) manufacturing electronic resistors, such as fixed and variable resistors, resistor networks, thermistors, and varistors; and (3) manufacturing electronic inductors, such as coils and transformers.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
334417Electronic Connector ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing electronic connectors, such as coaxial, cylindrical, rack and panel, pin and sleeve, printed circuit and fiber optic.

Cross-References.
334418Printed Circuit Assembly (Electronic Assembly) ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in loading components onto printed circuit boards or who manufacture and ship loaded printed circuit boards. Also known as printed circuit assemblies, electronics assemblies, or modules, these products are printed circuit boards that have some or all of the semiconductor and electronic components inserted or mounted and are inputs to a wide variety of electronic systems and devices.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
334419Other Electronic Component ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing electronic components (except bare printed circuit boards; semiconductors and related devices; electronic capacitors; electronic resistors; coils, transformers and other inductors; connectors; and loaded printed circuit boards).

Illustrative Examples:

Crystals and crystal assemblies, electronic, manufacturing
Electron tubes manufacturing
LCD (liquid crystal display) unit screens manufacturing
Microwave components manufacturing
Piezoelectric devices manufacturing
Printed circuit laminates manufacturing
Switches for electronic applications manufacturing
Transducers (except pressure) manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
3345Navigational, Measuring, Electromedical, and Control Instruments Manufacturing TNULL
33451Navigational, Measuring, Electromedical, and Control Instruments Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing navigational, measuring, electromedical, and control instruments. Examples of products made by these establishments are aeronautical instruments, appliance regulators and controls (except switches), laboratory analytical instruments, navigation and guidance systems, and physical properties testing equipment.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
334510Electromedical and Electrotherapeutic Apparatus ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing electromedical and electrotherapeutic apparatus, such as magnetic resonance imaging equipment, medical ultrasound equipment, pacemakers, hearing aids, electrocardiographs, and electromedical endoscopic equipment.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
334511Search, Detection, Navigation, Guidance, Aeronautical, and Nautical System and Instrument ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing search, detection, navigation, guidance, aeronautical, and nautical systems and instruments. Examples of products made by these establishments are aircraft instruments (except engine), flight recorders, navigational instruments and systems, radar systems and equipment, and sonar systems and equipment.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
334512Automatic Environmental Control Manufacturing for Residential, Commercial, and Appliance UseThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing automatic controls and regulators for applications, such as heating, air-conditioning, refrigeration and appliances.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
334513Instruments and Related Products Manufacturing for Measuring, Displaying, and Controlling Industrial Process VariablesThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing instruments and related devices for measuring, displaying, indicating, recording, transmitting, and controlling industrial process variables. These instruments measure, display or control (monitor, analyze, and so forth) industrial process variables, such as temperature, humidity, pressure, vacuum, combustion, flow, level, viscosity, density, acidity, concentration, and rotation.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
334514Totalizing Fluid Meter and Counting Device ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing totalizing (i.e., registering) fluid meters and counting devices. Examples of products made by these establishments are gas consumption meters, water consumption meters, parking meters, taxi meters, motor vehicle gauges, and fare collection equipment.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
334515Instrument Manufacturing for Measuring and Testing Electricity and Electrical SignalsThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing instruments for measuring and testing the characteristics of electricity and electrical signals. Examples of products made by these establishments are circuit and continuity testers, voltmeters, ohm meters, wattmeters, multimeters, and semiconductor test equipment.

Cross-References.
334516Analytical Laboratory Instrument ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing instruments and instrumentation systems for laboratory analysis of the chemical or physical composition or concentration of samples of solid, fluid, gaseous, or composite material.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
334517Irradiation Apparatus ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing irradiation apparatus and tubes for applications, such as medical diagnostic, medical therapeutic, industrial, research and scientific evaluation. Irradiation can take the form of beta-rays, gamma-rays, X-rays, or other ionizing radiation.
334519Other Measuring and Controlling Device ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing measuring and controlling devices (except search, detection, navigation, guidance, aeronautical, and nautical instruments and systems; automatic environmental controls for residential, commercial, and appliance use; instruments for measurement, display, and control of industrial process variables; totalizing fluid meters and counting devices; instruments for measuring and testing electricity and electrical signals; analytical laboratory instruments; irradiation equipment; and electromedical and electrotherapeutic apparatus).

Illustrative Examples:

Aircraft engine instruments manufacturing
Automotive emissions testing equipment manufacturing
Clocks assembling
Meteorological instruments manufacturing
Physical properties testing and inspection equipment manufacturing
Polygraph machines manufacturing
Radiation detection and monitoring instruments manufacturing
Surveying instruments manufacturing
Thermometers, liquid-in-glass and bimetal types (except medical), manufacturing
Watches and parts (except crystals) manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
3346Manufacturing and Reproducing Magnetic and Optical Media TNULL
33461Manufacturing and Reproducing Magnetic and Optical Media TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) manufacturing optical and magnetic media, such as blank audio tapes, blank video tapes, and blank diskettes, and/or (2) mass duplicating (i.e., making copies) audio, video, software, and other data on magnetic, optical, and similar media.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
334613Blank Magnetic and Optical Recording Media ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing blank magnetic and optical recording media, such as blank magnetic tape, blank diskettes, blank optical discs, hard drive media, and blank magnetic tape cassettes.

Cross-References.
334614Software and Other Prerecorded Compact Disc, Tape, and Record ReproducingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in mass reproducing computer software or other prerecorded audio and video material on magnetic or optical media, such as CD-ROMs, DVDs, tapes, or cartridges. These establishments do not generally develop any software or produce any audio or video content. This industry includes establishments that mass reproduce game CDs and cartridges.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
335Electrical Equipment, Appliance, and Component Manufacturing TIndustries in the Electrical Equipment, Appliance, and Component Manufacturing subsector manufacture products that generate, distribute and use electrical power. Electric Lighting Equipment Manufacturing establishments produce electric lamp bulbs, lighting fixtures, and parts. Household Appliance Manufacturing establishments make both small and major electrical appliances and parts. Electrical Equipment Manufacturing establishments make goods, such as electric motors, generators, transformers, and switchgear apparatus. Other Electrical Equipment and Component Manufacturing establishments make devices for storing electrical power (e.g., batteries), for transmitting electricity (e.g., insulated wire), and wiring devices (e.g., electrical outlets, fuse boxes, and light switches).
3351Electric Lighting Equipment Manufacturing TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) manufacturing electric light bulbs and tubes, and parts and components (except glass blanks for electric light bulbs) or (2) manufacturing electric lighting fixtures (except vehicular), nonelectric lighting equipment, lamp shades (except glass and plastics), and lighting fixture components (except current-carrying wiring devices).
33511Electric Lamp Bulb and Part Manufacturing TSee industry description for 335110.
335110Electric Lamp Bulb and Part ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing electric light bulbs and tubes, and parts and components (except glass blanks for electric light bulbs).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
33512Lighting Fixture Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing electric lighting fixtures (except vehicular), nonelectric lighting equipment, lamp shades (except glass and plastics), and lighting fixture components (except current-carrying wiring devices).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
335121Residential Electric Lighting Fixture ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing fixed or portable residential electric lighting fixtures and lamp shades of metal, paper, or textiles. Residential electric lighting fixtures include those for use both inside and outside the residence.

Illustrative Examples:

Ceiling lighting fixtures, residential, manufacturing
Chandeliers, residential, manufacturing
Table lamps (i.e., lighting fixtures) manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
335122Commercial, Industrial, and Institutional Electric Lighting Fixture ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing commercial, industrial, and institutional electric lighting fixtures.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
335129Other Lighting Equipment ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing electric lighting fixtures (except residential, commercial, industrial, institutional, and vehicular electric lighting fixtures) and nonelectric lighting equipment.

Illustrative Examples:

Christmas tree lighting sets, electric, manufacturing
Fireplace logs, electric, manufacturing
Flashlights manufacturing
Insect lamps, electric, manufacturing
Lanterns (e.g., carbide, electric, gas, gasoline, kerosene) manufacturing
Spotlights (except vehicular) manufacturing
Street lighting fixtures (except traffic signals) manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
3352Household Appliance Manufacturing TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing small electric appliances, electric housewares, and major household appliances.
33521Small Electrical Appliance Manufacturing TSee industry description for 335210.
335210Small Electrical Appliance ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing small electric appliances and electric housewares, household-type fans (except attic fans), household-type vacuum cleaners, and other electric household-type floor care machines.

Illustrative Examples:

Bath fans, residential, manufacturing
Carpet and floor cleaning equipment, household-type electric, manufacturing
Ceiling fans, residential, manufacturing
Curling irons, household-type electric, manufacturing
Electric blankets manufacturing
Portable cooking appliances (except microwave, convection ovens), household-type electric, manufacturing
Portable electric space heaters manufacturing
Portable hair dryers, electric, manufacturing
Portable humidifiers and dehumidifiers manufacturing
Scissors, electric, manufacturing
Ventilating and exhaust fans (except attic fans), household-type, manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
33522Major Household Appliance Manufacturing TSee industry description for 335220.
335220Major Household Appliance ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing household-type cooking appliances, household-type laundry equipment, household-type refrigerators, upright and chest freezers, and other electrical and nonelectrical major household-type appliances, such as dishwashers, water heaters, and garbage disposal units.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
3353Electrical Equipment Manufacturing TNULL
33531Electrical Equipment Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing power, distribution, and specialty transformers; electric motors, generators, and motor generator sets; switchgear and switchboard apparatus; relays; and industrial controls.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
335311Power, Distribution, and Specialty Transformer ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing power, distribution, and specialty transformers (except electronic components). Industrial-type and consumer-type transformers in this industry vary (e.g., step up or step down) voltage but do not convert alternating to direct or direct to alternating current.

Illustrative Examples:

Distribution transformers, electric, manufacturing
Fluorescent ballasts (i.e., transformers) manufacturing
Substation transformers, electric power distribution, manufacturing
Transmission and distribution voltage regulators manufacturing


Cross-References.
335312Motor and Generator ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing electric motors (except internal combustion engine starting motors), power generators (except battery charging alternators for internal combustion engines), and motor generator sets (except turbine generator set units). This industry includes establishments rewinding armatures on a factory basis.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
335313Switchgear and Switchboard Apparatus ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing switchgear and switchboard apparatus.

Illustrative Examples:

Circuit breakers, power, manufacturing
Control panels, electric power distribution, manufacturing
Ducts for electrical switchboard apparatus manufacturing
Fuses, electric, manufacturing
Power switching equipment manufacturing
Switches, electric power (except pushbutton, snap, solenoid, tumbler), manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
335314Relay and Industrial Control ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing relays, motor starters and controllers, and other industrial controls and control accessories.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
3359Other Electrical Equipment and Component Manufacturing TThis industry group comprises establishments manufacturing electrical equipment and components (except electric lighting equipment, household-type appliances, transformers, switchgear, relays, motors, and generators).
33591Battery Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing primary and storage batteries.
335911Storage Battery ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing storage batteries.

Illustrative Examples:

Lead acid storage batteries manufacturing
Lithium storage batteries manufacturing
Rechargeable nickel-cadmium (NICAD) batteries manufacturing


Cross-References.
335912Primary Battery ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing wet or dry primary batteries.

Illustrative Examples:

Disposable flashlight batteries manufacturing
Dry cells, primary (e.g., AAA, AA, C, D, 9V), manufacturing
Lithium batteries, primary, manufacturing
Watch batteries manufacturing


Cross-References.
33592Communication and Energy Wire and Cable Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments insulating fiber optic cable, and manufacturing insulated nonferrous wire and cable from nonferrous wire drawn in other establishments.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
335921Fiber Optic Cable ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing insulated fiber optic cable from purchased fiber optic strand.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
335929Other Communication and Energy Wire ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing insulated wire and cable of nonferrous metals from purchased wire.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
33593Wiring Device Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing current-carrying wiring devices and noncurrent-carrying wiring devices for wiring electrical circuits.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
335931Current-Carrying Wiring Device ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing current-carrying wiring devices.

Illustrative Examples:

Bus bars, electrical conductors (except switchgear-type), manufacturing
GFCI (ground fault circuit interrupters) manufacturing
Lamp holders manufacturing
Lightning arrestors and coils manufacturing
Receptacles (i.e., outlets), electrical, manufacturing
Switches for electrical wiring (e.g., pressure, pushbutton, snap, tumbler) manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
335932Noncurrent-Carrying Wiring Device ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing noncurrent-carrying wiring devices.

Illustrative Examples:

Boxes, electrical wiring (e.g., junction, outlet, switch), manufacturing
Conduits and fittings, electrical, manufacturing
Face plates (i.e., outlet or switch covers) manufacturing
Transmission pole and line hardware manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
33599All Other Electrical Equipment and Component Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing electrical equipment (except electric lighting equipment, household-type appliances, transformers, motors, generators, switchgear, relays, industrial controls, batteries, communication and energy wire and cable, and wiring devices).

Illustrative Examples:

Carbon and graphite electrodes and brushes manufacturing
Door opening and closing devices, electrical, manufacturing
Extension cords made from purchased insulated wire
Surge suppressors manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
335991Carbon and Graphite Product ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing carbon, graphite, and metal-graphite brushes and brush stock; carbon or graphite electrodes for thermal and electrolytic uses; carbon and graphite fibers; and other carbon, graphite, and metal-graphite products.

Cross-References.
335999All Other Miscellaneous Electrical Equipment and Component ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing industrial and commercial electric apparatus and other equipment (except lighting equipment, household appliances, transformers, motors, generators, switchgear, relays, industrial controls, batteries, communication and energy wire and cable, wiring devices, and carbon and graphite products). This industry includes power converters (i.e., AC to DC and DC to AC), power supplies, surge suppressors, and similar equipment for industrial-type and consumer-type equipment.

Illustrative Examples:

Appliance cords made from purchased insulated wire
Battery chargers, solid-state, manufacturing
Door opening and closing devices, electrical, manufacturing
Electric bells manufacturing
Extension cords made from purchased insulated wire
Inverters manufacturing
Surge suppressers manufacturing
Uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
336Transportation Equipment Manufacturing TIndustries in the Transportation Equipment Manufacturing subsector produce equipment for transporting people and goods. Transportation equipment is a type of machinery. An entire subsector is devoted to this activity because of the significance of its economic size in all three North American countries.

Establishments in this subsector utilize production processes similar to those of other machinery manufacturing establishments—bending, forming, welding, machining, and assembling metal or plastic parts into components and finished products. However, the assembly of components and subassemblies and their further assembly into finished vehicles tends to be a more common production process in this subsector than in the Machinery Manufacturing subsector.

NAICS has industry groups for the manufacture of equipment for each mode of transport—road, rail, air and water. Parts for motor vehicles warrant a separate industry group because of their importance and because they require less assembly than complete vehicles.

Land use motor vehicle equipment not designed for highway operation (e.g., agricultural equipment, construction equipment, and material handling equipment) is classified in the appropriate NAICS subsector based on the type and use of the equipment.
3361Motor Vehicle Manufacturing TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) manufacturing complete automobiles, light duty motor vehicles, and heavy duty trucks (i.e., body and chassis or unibody) or (2) manufacturing motor vehicle chassis only.
33611Automobile and Light Duty Motor Vehicle Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) manufacturing complete automobile and light duty motor vehicles (i.e., body and chassis or unibody) or (2) manufacturing automobile and light duty motor vehicle chassis only.

Cross-References.
336111Automobile ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) manufacturing complete automobiles (i.e., body and chassis or unibody) or (2) manufacturing automobile chassis only.

Cross-References.
336112Light Truck and Utility Vehicle ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) manufacturing complete light trucks and utility vehicles (i.e., body and chassis) or (2) manufacturing light truck and utility vehicle chassis only. Vehicles made include light duty vans, pick-up trucks, minivans, and sport utility vehicles.

Cross-References.
33612Heavy Duty Truck Manufacturing TSee industry description for 336120.
336120Heavy Duty Truck ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) manufacturing heavy duty truck chassis and assembling complete heavy duty trucks, buses, heavy duty motor homes, and other special purpose heavy duty motor vehicles for highway use or (2) manufacturing heavy duty truck chassis only.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
3362Motor Vehicle Body and Trailer Manufacturing TNULL
33621Motor Vehicle Body and Trailer Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) manufacturing motor vehicle bodies and cabs or (2) manufacturing truck, automobile and utility trailers, truck trailer chassis, detachable trailer bodies, and detachable trailer chassis. The products made may be sold separately or may be assembled on purchased chassis and sold as complete vehicles.

Motor homes are units where the motor and the living quarters are contained in the same integrated unit, while travel trailers are designed to be towed by a motor unit, such as an automobile or a light truck.

Illustrative Examples:

Bodies and cabs, truck, manufacturing
Camper units, slide-in, for pick-up trucks, manufacturing
Motor homes, self-contained, assembling on purchased chassis
Pick-up canopies, caps, or covers manufacturing
Semi-trailers manufacturing
Travel trailers, recreational, manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
336211Motor Vehicle Body ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing truck and bus bodies and cabs and automobile bodies. The products made may be sold separately or may be assembled on purchased chassis and sold as complete vehicles.

Cross-References.
336212Truck Trailer ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing truck trailers, truck trailer chassis, cargo container chassis, detachable trailer bodies, and detachable trailer chassis for sale separately.

Cross-References.
336213Motor Home ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) manufacturing motor homes on purchased chassis and/or (2) manufacturing conversion vans on an assembly line basis. Motor homes are units where the motor and the living quarters are integrated in the same unit.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
336214Travel Trailer and Camper ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) manufacturing travel trailers and campers designed to attach to motor vehicles; (2) manufacturing pick-up coaches (i.e., campers) and caps (i.e., covers) for mounting on pick-up trucks; and (3) manufacturing automobile, utility and light-truck trailers. Travel trailers do not have their own motor but are designed to be towed by a motor unit, such as an automobile or a light truck.

Illustrative Examples:

Automobile transporter trailers, single car, manufacturing
Camper units, slide-in, for pick-up trucks, manufacturing
Camping trailers and chassis manufacturing
Horse trailers (except fifth-wheel-type) manufacturing
Pick-up canopies, caps, or covers manufacturing
Travel trailers, recreational, manufacturing
Utility trailers manufacturing


Cross-References.
3363Motor Vehicle Parts Manufacturing TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing motor vehicle gasoline engines and engine parts, motor vehicle electrical and electronic equipment, motor vehicle steering and suspension components (except springs), motor vehicle brake systems, motor vehicle transmission and power train parts, motor vehicle seating and interior trim, motor vehicle metal stampings, and other motor vehicle parts and accessories. This industry group includes establishments that rebuild motor vehicle parts.
33631Motor Vehicle Gasoline Engine and Engine Parts Manufacturing TSee industry description for 336310.
336310Motor Vehicle Gasoline Engine and Engine Parts ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) manufacturing and/or rebuilding motor vehicle gasoline engines and engine parts and/or (2) manufacturing and/or rebuilding carburetors, pistons, piston rings, and engine valves, whether or not for vehicular use.

Illustrative Examples:

Carburetors, all types, manufacturing
Crankshaft assemblies, automotive and truck gasoline engine, manufacturing
Cylinder heads, automotive and truck gasoline engine, manufacturing
Fuel injection systems and parts, automotive and truck gasoline engine, manufacturing
Gasoline engines for hybrid automotive vehicles manufacturing
Manifolds (i.e., intake and exhaust), automotive and truck gasoline engine, manufacturing
Pistons and piston rings manufacturing
Pumps (e.g., fuel, oil, water), mechanical, automotive and truck gasoline engine (except power steering), manufacturing
Timing gears and chains, automotive and truck gasoline engine, manufacturing
Valves, engine, intake and exhaust, manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
33632Motor Vehicle Electrical and Electronic Equipment Manufacturing TSee industry description for 336320.
336320Motor Vehicle Electrical and Electronic Equipment ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing and/or rebuilding electrical and electronic equipment for motor vehicles and internal combustion engines. The products made can be used for all types of transportation equipment (i.e., aircraft, automobiles, trucks, trains, ships) or stationary internal combustion engine applications.

Illustrative Examples:

Alternators and generators for internal combustion engines manufacturing
Automotive lighting fixtures manufacturing
Coils, ignition, internal combustion engines, manufacturing
Distributors for internal combustion engines manufacturing
Electrical control chips (modules), motor vehicle, manufacturing
Electrical ignition cable sets for internal combustion engines manufacturing
Generators for internal combustion engines manufacturing
Ignition wiring harness for internal combustion engines manufacturing
Instrument control panels (i.e., assembling purchased gauges), automotive, truck, and bus, manufacturing
Spark plugs for internal combustion engines manufacturing
Windshield washer pumps, automotive, truck, and bus, manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
33633Motor Vehicle Steering and Suspension Components (except Spring) Manufacturing TSee industry description for 336330.
336330Motor Vehicle Steering and Suspension Components (except Spring) ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing and/or rebuilding motor vehicle steering mechanisms and suspension components (except springs).

Illustrative Examples:

Power steering pumps manufacturing
Rack and pinion steering assemblies manufacturing
Shock absorbers, automotive, truck, and bus, manufacturing
Steering columns, automotive, truck, and bus, manufacturing
Steering wheels, automotive, truck, and bus, manufacturing
Struts, automotive, truck, and bus, manufacturing


Cross-References.
33634Motor Vehicle Brake System Manufacturing TSee industry description for 336340.
336340Motor Vehicle Brake System ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing and/or rebuilding motor vehicle brake systems and related components.

Illustrative Examples:

Brake cylinders, master and wheel, automotive, truck, and bus, manufacturing
Brake drums, automotive, truck, and bus, manufacturing
Brake hose assemblies manufacturing
Brake pads and shoes, automotive, truck, and bus, manufacturing
Calipers, brake, automotive, truck, and bus, manufacturing


Cross-References.
33635Motor Vehicle Transmission and Power Train Parts Manufacturing TSee industry description for 336350.
336350Motor Vehicle Transmission and Power Train Parts ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing and/or rebuilding motor vehicle transmissions and power train parts.

Illustrative Examples:

Automatic transmissions, automotive, truck, and bus, manufacturing
Axle bearings, automotive, truck, and bus, manufacturing
Constant velocity joints, automotive, truck, and bus, manufacturing
Differential and rear axle assemblies, automotive, truck, and bus, manufacturing
Torque converters, automotive, truck, and bus, manufacturing
Universal joints, automotive, truck, and bus, manufacturing
33636Motor Vehicle Seating and Interior Trim Manufacturing TSee industry description for 336360.
336360Motor Vehicle Seating and Interior Trim ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing motor vehicle seating, seats, seat frames, seat belts, and interior trimmings.

Cross-References.
33637Motor Vehicle Metal Stamping TSee industry description for 336370.
336370Motor Vehicle Metal StampingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing motor vehicle stampings, such as fenders, tops, body parts, trim, and molding.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
33639Other Motor Vehicle Parts Manufacturing TSee industry description for 336390.
336390Other Motor Vehicle Parts ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing and/or rebuilding motor vehicle parts and accessories (except motor vehicle gasoline engines and engine parts, motor vehicle electrical and electronic equipment, motor vehicle steering and suspension components, motor vehicle brake systems, motor vehicle transmissions and power train parts, motor vehicle seating and interior trim, and motor vehicle stampings).

Illustrative Examples:

Air bag assemblies manufacturing
Air-conditioners, motor vehicle, manufacturing
Air filters, automotive, truck, and bus, manufacturing
Catalytic converters, engine exhaust, automotive, truck, and bus, manufacturing
Compressors, motor vehicle air-conditioning, manufacturing
Mufflers and resonators, motor vehicle, manufacturing
Radiators and cores manufacturing
Wheels (i.e., rims), automotive, truck, and bus, manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
3364Aerospace Product and Parts Manufacturing TNULL
33641Aerospace Product and Parts Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) manufacturing complete aircraft, missiles, or space vehicles; (2) manufacturing aerospace engines, propulsion units, auxiliary equipment or parts; (3) developing and making prototypes of aerospace products; (4) aircraft conversion (i.e., major modifications to systems); and (5) complete aircraft or propulsion systems overhaul and rebuilding (i.e., periodic restoration of aircraft to original design specifications).

Cross-References.
336411Aircraft ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) manufacturing or assembling complete aircraft; (2) developing and making aircraft prototypes; (3) aircraft conversion (i.e., major modifications to systems); and (4) complete aircraft overhaul and rebuilding (i.e., periodic restoration of aircraft to original design specifications).

Cross-References.
336412Aircraft Engine and Engine Parts ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) manufacturing aircraft engines and engine parts; (2) developing and making prototypes of aircraft engines and engine parts; (3) aircraft propulsion system conversion (i.e., major modifications to systems); and (4) aircraft propulsion systems overhaul and rebuilding (i.e., periodic restoration of aircraft propulsion system to original design specifications).

Cross-References.
336413Other Aircraft Parts and Auxiliary Equipment ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) manufacturing aircraft parts or auxiliary equipment (except engines and aircraft fluid power subassemblies) and/or (2) developing and making prototypes of aircraft parts and auxiliary equipment. Auxiliary equipment includes such items as crop dusting apparatus, armament racks, inflight refueling equipment, and external fuel tanks.

Cross-References.
336414Guided Missile and Space Vehicle ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) manufacturing complete guided missiles and space vehicles and/or (2) developing and making prototypes of guided missiles or space vehicles.

Cross-References.
336415Guided Missile and Space Vehicle Propulsion Unit and Propulsion Unit Parts ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) manufacturing guided missile and/or space vehicle propulsion units and propulsion unit parts and/or (2) developing and making prototypes of guided missile and space vehicle propulsion units and propulsion unit parts.

Cross-References.
336419Other Guided Missile and Space Vehicle Parts and Auxiliary Equipment ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) manufacturing guided missile and space vehicle parts and auxiliary equipment (except guided missile and space vehicle propulsion units and propulsion unit parts) and/or (2) developing and making prototypes of guided missile and space vehicle parts and auxiliary equipment.

Cross-References.
3365Railroad Rolling Stock Manufacturing TNULL
33651Railroad Rolling Stock Manufacturing TSee industry description for 336510.
336510Railroad Rolling Stock ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) manufacturing and/or rebuilding locomotives, locomotive frames and parts; (2) manufacturing railroad, street, and rapid transit cars and car equipment for operation on rails for freight and passenger service; and (3) manufacturing rail layers, ballast distributors, rail tamping equipment and other railway track maintenance equipment.

Cross-References.
3366Ship and Boat Building TNULL
33661Ship and Boat Building TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating shipyards or boat yards (i.e., ship or boat manufacturing facilities). Shipyards are fixed facilities with drydocks and fabrication equipment capable of building a ship, defined as watercraft typically suitable or intended for other than personal or recreational use. Boats are defined as watercraft typically suitable or intended for personal use. Activities of shipyards include the construction of ships, their repair, conversion and alteration, production of prefabricated ship and barge sections, and specialized services, such as ship scaling.

Illustrative Examples:

Barge building
Boat yards (i.e., boat manufacturing facilities)
Cargo ship building
Drilling and production platforms, floating, oil and gas, building
Inflatable plastic boats, heavy-duty, manufacturing
Inflatable rubber boats, heavy-duty, manufacturing
Passenger ship building
Rigid inflatable boats (RIBs) manufacturing
Rowboats manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
336611Ship Building and RepairingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating shipyards. Shipyards are fixed facilities with drydocks and fabrication equipment capable of building a ship, defined as watercraft typically suitable or intended for other than personal or recreational use. Activities of shipyards include the construction of ships, their repair, conversion and alteration, the production of prefabricated ship and barge sections, and specialized services, such as ship scaling.

Illustrative Examples:

Barge building
Cargo ship building
Drilling and production platforms, floating, oil and gas, building
Passenger ship building
Submarine building


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
336612Boat BuildingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in building boats. Boats are defined as watercraft not built in shipyards and typically of the type suitable or intended for personal use. Included in this industry are establishments that manufacture heavy-duty inflatable rubber or inflatable plastic boats (RIBs).

Illustrative Examples:

Dinghy (except inflatable rubber) manufacturing
Inflatable plastic boats, heavy-duty, manufacturing
Inflatable rubber boats, heavy-duty, manufacturing
Motorboats, inboard or outboard, building
Rigid inflatable boats (RIBs) manufacturing
Rowboats manufacturing
Sailboat building, not done in shipyards
Yacht building, not done in shipyards


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
3369Other Transportation Equipment Manufacturing TNULL
33699Other Transportation Equipment Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing motorcycles, bicycles, metal tricycles, complete military armored vehicles, tanks, self-propelled weapons, vehicles pulled by draft animals, and other transportation equipment (except motor vehicles, boats, ships, railroad rolling stock, and aerospace products), including parts thereof.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
336991Motorcycle, Bicycle, and Parts ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing motorcycles, bicycles, tricycles and similar equipment, and parts.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
336992Military Armored Vehicle, Tank, and Tank Component ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing complete military armored vehicles, combat tanks, specialized components for combat tanks, and self-propelled weapons.

Cross-References.
336999All Other Transportation Equipment ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing transportation equipment (except motor vehicles, motor vehicle parts, boats, ships, railroad rolling stock, aerospace products, motorcycles, bicycles, armored vehicles and tanks).

Illustrative Examples:

All-terrain vehicles (ATVs), wheeled or tracked, manufacturing
Animal-drawn vehicles and parts manufacturing
Gocarts (except children's) manufacturing
Golf carts and similar motorized passenger carriers manufacturing
Race cars manufacturing
Snowmobiles and parts manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
337Furniture and Related Product Manufacturing TIndustries in the Furniture and Related Product Manufacturing subsector make furniture and related articles, such as mattresses, window blinds, cabinets, and fixtures. The processes used in the manufacture of furniture include the cutting, bending, molding, laminating, and assembly of such materials as wood, metal, glass, plastics, and rattan. However, the production process for furniture is not solely bending metal, cutting and shaping wood, or extruding and molding plastics. Design and fashion trends play an important part in the production of furniture. The integrated design of the article for both esthetic and functional qualities is also a major part of the process of manufacturing furniture. Design services may be performed by the furniture establishment's work force or may be purchased from industrial designers.

Furniture may be made of any material, but the most common ones used in North America are metal and wood. Furniture manufacturing establishments may specialize in making articles primarily from one material. Some of the equipment required to make a wooden table, for example, is different from that used to make a metal one. However, furniture is usually made from several materials. A wooden table might have metal brackets, and a wooden chair a fabric or plastics seat. Therefore, in NAICS, furniture initially is classified based on the type of furniture (application for which it is designed) rather than the material used. For example, an upholstered sofa is treated as household furniture, although it may also be used in hotels or offices.

When classifying furniture according to the component material from which it is made, furniture made from more than one material is classified based on the material used in the frame, or if there is no frame, the predominant component material. Upholstered household furniture (excluding kitchen and dining room chairs with upholstered seats) is classified without regard to the frame material. Kitchen or dining room chairs with upholstered seats are classified according to the frame material.

Furniture may be made on a stock or custom basis and may be shipped assembled or unassembled (i.e., knockdown). The manufacture of furniture parts and frames is included in this subsector.

Some of the processes used in furniture manufacturing are similar to processes that are used in other segments of manufacturing. For example, cutting and assembly occurs in the production of wood trusses that are classified in Subsector 321, Wood Product Manufacturing. However, the multiple processes that distinguish wood furniture manufacturing from wood product manufacturing warrant inclusion of wooden furniture manufacturing in the Furniture and Related Product Manufacturing subsector. Metal furniture manufacturing uses techniques that are also employed in the manufacturing of roll formed products classified in Subsector 332, Fabricated Metal Product Manufacturing. The molding process for plastics furniture is similar to the molding of other plastics products. However, plastics furniture producing establishments tend to specialize in furniture.

NAICS attempts to keep furniture manufacturing together, but there are two notable exceptions: seating for transportation equipment and specialized hospital furniture (e.g., hospital beds and operating tables). These exceptions are related to the fact that some of the aspects of the production process for these products, primarily the design, are highly integrated with the other manufactured goods, namely motor vehicles and medical equipment.
3371Household and Institutional Furniture and Kitchen Cabinet Manufacturing TThis industry group comprises establishments manufacturing household-type furniture, such as living room, kitchen and bedroom furniture and institutional (i.e., public building) furniture, such as furniture for schools, theaters, and churches.
33711Wood Kitchen Cabinet and Countertop Manufacturing TSee industry description for 337110.
337110Wood Kitchen Cabinet and Countertop ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing wood or plastics laminated on wood kitchen cabinets, bathroom vanities, and countertops (except freestanding). The cabinets and counters may be made on a stock or custom basis.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
33712Household and Institutional Furniture Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing household-type and public building furniture (i.e., library, school, theater, and church furniture). This industry includes establishments that manufacture general purpose hospital, laboratory and/or dental furniture (e.g., stools, tables, benches). The furniture may be made on a stock or custom basis and may be assembled or unassembled (i.e., knockdown).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
337121Upholstered Household Furniture ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing upholstered household-type furniture. The furniture may be made on a stock or custom basis.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
337122Nonupholstered Wood Household Furniture ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing nonupholstered wood household-type furniture and freestanding cabinets (except television, stereo, and sewing machine cabinets). The furniture may be made on a stock or custom basis and may be assembled or unassembled (i.e., knockdown).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
337124Metal Household Furniture ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing metal household-type furniture and freestanding cabinets. The furniture may be made on a stock or custom basis and may be assembled or unassembled (i.e., knockdown).

Cross-References.
337125Household Furniture (except Wood and Metal) ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing household-type furniture of materials other than wood or metal, such as plastics, reed, rattan, wicker, and fiberglass. The furniture may be made on a stock or custom basis and may be assembled or unassembled (i.e., knockdown).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
337127Institutional Furniture ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing institutional-type furniture (e.g., library, school, theater, and church furniture). Included in this industry are establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing general purpose hospital, laboratory, and dental furniture (e.g., tables, stools, and benches). The furniture may be made on a stock or custom basis and may be assembled or unassembled (i.e., knockdown).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
3372Office Furniture (including Fixtures) Manufacturing TNULL
33721Office Furniture (including Fixtures) Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing office furniture and/or office and store fixtures. The furniture may be made on a stock or custom basis and may be assembled or unassembled (i.e., knockdown).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
337211Wood Office Furniture ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing wood office-type furniture. The furniture may be made on a stock or custom basis and may be assembled or unassembled (i.e., knockdown).
337212Custom Architectural Woodwork and Millwork ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing custom designed interiors consisting of architectural woodwork and fixtures utilizing wood, wood products, and plastics laminates. All of the industry output is made to individual order on a job shop basis and requires skilled craftsmen as a labor input. A job might include custom manufacturing of display fixtures, gondolas, wall shelving units, entrance and window architectural detail, sales and reception counters, wall paneling, and matching furniture.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
337214Office Furniture (except Wood) ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing nonwood office-type furniture. The furniture may be made on a stock or custom basis and may be assembled or unassembled (i.e., knockdown).
337215Showcase, Partition, Shelving, and Locker ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing wood and nonwood office and store fixtures, shelving, lockers, frames, partitions, and related fabricated products of wood and nonwood materials, including plastics laminated fixture tops. The products are made on a stock or custom basis and may be assembled or unassembled (i.e., knockdown). Establishments exclusively making furniture parts (e.g., frames) are included in this industry.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
3379Other Furniture Related Product Manufacturing TThis industry group comprises establishments manufacturing furniture related products, such as mattresses, blinds, and shades.
33791Mattress Manufacturing TSee industry description for 337910.
337910Mattress ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing innerspring, box spring, and noninnerspring mattresses, including mattresses for waterbeds.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
33792Blind and Shade Manufacturing TSee industry description for 337920.
337920Blind and Shade ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing one or more of the following: venetian blinds, other window blinds, and shades; curtain and drapery rods and poles; and/or curtain and drapery fixtures. The blinds and shades may be made on a stock or custom basis and may be made of any material.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
339Miscellaneous Manufacturing TIndustries in the Miscellaneous Manufacturing subsector make a wide range of products that cannot readily be classified in specific NAICS subsectors in manufacturing. Processes used by these establishments vary significantly, both among and within industries. For example, a variety of manufacturing processes are used in manufacturing sporting and athletic goods that include products such as tennis racquets and golf balls. The processes for these products differ from each other, and the processes differ significantly from the fabrication processes used in making dolls or toys, the melting and shaping of precious metals to make jewelry, and the bending, forming, and assembly used in making medical products.

The industries in this subsector are defined by what is made rather than how it is made. Although individual establishments might be appropriately classified elsewhere in the NAICS structure, for historical continuity, these product-based industries were maintained. In most cases, no one process or material predominates for an industry.

Establishments in this subsector manufacture products as diverse as medical equipment and supplies, jewelry, sporting goods, toys, and office supplies.
3391Medical Equipment and Supplies Manufacturing TNULL
33911Medical Equipment and Supplies Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing medical equipment and supplies. Examples of products made by these establishments are surgical and medical instruments, surgical appliances and supplies, dental equipment and supplies, orthodontic goods, ophthalmic goods, dentures, and orthodontic appliances.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
339112Surgical and Medical Instrument ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing medical, surgical, ophthalmic, and veterinary instruments and apparatus (except electrotherapeutic, electromedical and irradiation apparatus). Examples of products made by these establishments are syringes, hypodermic needles, anesthesia apparatus, blood transfusion equipment, catheters, surgical clamps, and medical thermometers.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
339113Surgical Appliance and Supplies ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing surgical appliances and supplies. Examples of products made by these establishments are orthopedic devices, prosthetic appliances, surgical dressings, crutches, surgical sutures, personal industrial safety devices (except protective eyewear), hospital beds, and operating room tables.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
339114Dental Equipment and Supplies ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing dental equipment and supplies used by dental laboratories and offices of dentists, such as dental chairs, dental instrument delivery systems, dental hand instruments, dental impression material, and dental cements.

Cross-References.
339115Ophthalmic Goods ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing ophthalmic goods. Examples of products made by these establishments are prescription eyeglasses (except manufactured in a retail setting), contact lenses, sunglasses, eyeglass frames, reading glasses made to standard powers, and protective eyewear.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
339116Dental LaboratoriesThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing dentures, crowns, bridges, and orthodontic appliances customized for individual application.

Cross-References.
3399Other Miscellaneous Manufacturing TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in miscellaneous manufacturing, such as jewelry and silverware manufacturing, sporting and athletic goods manufacturing, doll, toy, and game manufacturing, office supplies (except paper) manufacturing, sign manufacturing, and all other miscellaneous manufacturing.
33991Jewelry and Silverware Manufacturing TSee industry description for 339910.
339910Jewelry and Silverware ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) manufacturing, engraving, chasing, or etching jewelry; (2) manufacturing, engraving, chasing, or etching metal personal goods (i.e., small articles carried on or about the person, such as compacts or cigarette cases); (3) manufacturing, engraving, chasing, or etching precious metal solid, precious metal clad, or pewter flatware and other hollowware; (4) stamping coins; (5) manufacturing unassembled jewelry parts and stock shop products, such as sheet, wire, and tubing; (6) cutting, slabbing, tumbling, carving, engraving, polishing, or faceting precious or semiprecious stones and gems; (7) recutting, repolishing, and setting gem stones; and (8) drilling, sawing, and peeling cultured and costume pearls. This industry includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing precious solid, precious clad, and precious plated jewelry and personal goods.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
33992Sporting and Athletic Goods Manufacturing TSee industry description for 339920.
339920Sporting and Athletic Goods ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing sporting and athletic goods (except apparel and footwear).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
33993Doll, Toy, and Game Manufacturing TSee industry description for 339930.
339930Doll, Toy, and Game ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing complete dolls, doll parts, doll clothes, action figures, toys, games (including electronic), hobby kits, and children's vehicles (except metal bicycles and tricycles).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
33994Office Supplies (except Paper) Manufacturing TSee industry description for 339940.
339940Office Supplies (except Paper) ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing office supplies. Examples of products made by these establishments are pens, pencils, felt tip markers, crayons, chalk, pencil sharpeners, staplers, modeling clay, hand operated stamps, stamp pads, stencils, carbon paper, and inked ribbons.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
33995Sign Manufacturing TSee industry description for 339950.
339950Sign ManufacturingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing signs and related displays of all materials (except printing paper and paperboard signs, notices, displays).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
33999All Other Miscellaneous Manufacturing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in miscellaneous manufacturing (except medical equipment and supplies, jewelry and flatware, sporting and athletic goods, dolls, toys, games, office supplies (except paper), and signs).

Illustrative Examples:

Artificial Christmas trees manufacturing
Burial caskets and cases manufacturing
Candles manufacturing
Coin-operated amusement machines (except jukebox) manufacturing
Electronic cigarettes manufacturing
Fasteners, buttons, needles, and pins (except precious metals or precious and semiprecious stones and gems) manufacturing
Floor and dust mops manufacturing
Gasket, packing, and sealing devices manufacturing
Musical instruments (except toy) manufacturing
Portable fire extinguishers manufacturing
Umbrellas manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
339991Gasket, Packing, and Sealing Device ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing gaskets, packing, and sealing devices of all materials.
339992Musical Instrument ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing musical instruments (except toys).

Cross-References.
339993Fastener, Button, Needle, and Pin ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing fasteners, buttons, needles, pins, and buckles (except made of precious metals or precious and semiprecious stones and gems).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
339994Broom, Brush, and Mop ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing brooms, mops, and brushes.
339995Burial Casket ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing burial caskets, cases, and vaults (except concrete).

Cross-References.
339999All Other Miscellaneous ManufacturingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in miscellaneous manufacturing (except medical equipment and supplies, jewelry and flatware, sporting and athletic goods, dolls, toys, games, office supplies (except paper), musical instruments, fasteners, buttons, needles, pins, brooms, brushes, mops, and burial caskets).

Illustrative Examples:

Artificial Christmas trees manufacturing
Candles manufacturing
Christmas tree ornaments (except glass and electric) manufacturing
Cigarette lighters (except precious metal) manufacturing
Coin-operated amusement machines (except jukebox) manufacturing
Electronic cigarettes manufacturing
Hairpieces (e.g., wigs, toupees, wiglets) manufacturing
Portable fire extinguishers manufacturing
Potpourri manufacturing
Tobacco pipes manufacturing
Umbrellas manufacturing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
42Wholesale Trade TThe Sector as a Whole

The Wholesale Trade sector comprises establishments engaged in wholesaling merchandise, generally without transformation, and rendering services incidental to the sale of merchandise. The merchandise described in this sector includes the outputs of agriculture, mining, manufacturing, and certain information industries, such as publishing.

The wholesaling process is an intermediate step in the distribution of merchandise. Wholesalers are organized to sell or arrange the purchase or sale of (a) goods for resale (i.e., goods sold to other wholesalers or retailers), (b) capital or durable nonconsumer goods, and (c) raw and intermediate materials and supplies used in production.

Wholesalers sell merchandise to other businesses and normally operate from a warehouse or office. These warehouses and offices are characterized by having little or no display of merchandise. In addition, neither the design nor the location of the premises is intended to solicit walk-in traffic. Wholesalers do not normally use advertising directed to the general public. Customers are generally reached initially via telephone, in-person marketing, or by specialized advertising that may include Internet and other electronic means. Follow-up orders are either vendor-initiated or client-initiated, generally based on previous sales, and typically exhibit strong ties between sellers and buyers. In fact, transactions are often conducted between wholesalers and clients that have long-standing business relationships.

This sector comprises two main types of wholesalers: merchant wholesalers that sell goods on their own account and business-to-business electronic markets, agents, and brokers that arrange sales and purchases for others generally for a commission or fee.

(1) Establishments that sell goods on their own account are known as wholesale merchants, distributors, jobbers, drop shippers, and import/export merchants. Also included as wholesale merchants are sales offices and sales branches (but not retail stores) maintained by manufacturing, refining, or mining enterprises apart from their plants or mines for the purpose of marketing their products and group purchasing organizations (e.g., purchasing and selling goods on their own account). Merchant wholesale establishments typically maintain their own warehouse, where they receive and handle goods for their customers. Goods are generally sold without transformation, but may include integral functions, such as sorting, packaging, labeling, and other marketing services.

(2) Establishments arranging for the purchase or sale of goods owned by others or purchasing goods, generally on a commission basis are known as business-to-business electronic markets, agents and brokers, commission merchants, import/export agents and brokers, auction companies, group purchasing organizations (e.g., purchasing or arranging for the purchases of goods owned by others), and manufacturers' representatives. These establishments operate from offices and generally do not own or handle the goods they sell.

Some wholesale establishments may be connected with a single manufacturer and promote and sell the particular manufacturer’s products to a wide range of other wholesalers or retailers. Other wholesalers may be connected to a retail chain, or limited number of retail chains, and only provide a variety of products needed by that particular retail operation(s). These wholesalers may obtain the products from a wide range of manufacturers. Still other wholesalers may not take title to the goods, but act as agents and brokers for a commission.

Although, in general, wholesaling normally denotes sales in large volumes, durable nonconsumer goods may be sold in single units. Sales of capital or durable nonconsumer goods used in the production of goods and services, such as farm machinery, medium- and heavy-duty trucks, and industrial machinery, are always included in wholesale trade.
423Merchant Wholesalers, Durable GoodsIndustries in the Merchant Wholesalers, Durable Goods subsector sell capital or durable goods to other businesses. Merchant wholesalers generally take title to the goods that they sell; in other words, they buy and sell goods on their own account. Durable goods are new or used items generally with a normal life expectancy of three years or more. Durable goods merchant wholesale trade establishments are engaged in wholesaling products, such as motor vehicles, furniture, construction materials, machinery and equipment (including household-type appliances), metals and minerals (except petroleum), sporting goods, toys and hobby goods, recyclable materials, and parts.

Business-to-business electronic markets, agents, and brokers primarily engaged in wholesaling durable goods, generally on a commission or fee basis, are classified in Subsector 425, Wholesale Electronic Markets and Agents and Brokers.
4231Motor Vehicle and Motor Vehicle Parts and Supplies Merchant WholesalersThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of automobiles and other motor vehicles, motor vehicle supplies, tires, and new and used parts.
42311Automobile and Other Motor Vehicle Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 423110.
423110Automobile and Other Motor Vehicle Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of new and used passenger automobiles, trucks, trailers, and other motor vehicles, such as motorcycles, motor homes, and snowmobiles.
42312Motor Vehicle Supplies and New Parts Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 423120.
423120Motor Vehicle Supplies and New Parts Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of motor vehicle supplies, accessories, tools, and equipment; and new motor vehicle parts (except new tires and tubes).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
42313Tire and Tube Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 423130.
423130Tire and Tube Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of new and/or used tires and tubes for passenger and commercial vehicles.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
42314Motor Vehicle Parts (Used) Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 423140.
423140Motor Vehicle Parts (Used) Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of used motor vehicle parts (except used tires and tubes) and establishments primarily engaged in dismantling motor vehicles for the purpose of selling the parts.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
4232Furniture and Home Furnishing Merchant WholesalersThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of furniture (except hospital beds, medical furniture, and drafting tables), home furnishings, and/or housewares.
42321Furniture Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 423210.
423210Furniture Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of furniture (except hospital beds, medical furniture, and drafting tables).

Illustrative Examples:

Household-type furniture merchant wholesalers
Outdoor furniture merchant wholesalers
Mattresses merchant wholesalers
Public building furniture merchant wholesalers
Office furniture merchant wholesalers
Religious furniture merchant wholesalers


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
42322Home Furnishing Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 423220.
423220Home Furnishing Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of home furnishings and/or housewares.

Illustrative Examples:

Carpet merchant wholesalers
Glassware, household-type, merchant wholesalers
Chinaware, household-type, merchant wholesalers
Household-type cooking utensils merchant wholesalers
Curtains merchant wholesalers
Lamps (i.e., lighting fixtures) merchant wholesalers
Draperies merchant wholesalers
Linens (e.g., bath, bed, table) merchant wholesalers
Floor coverings merchant wholesalers
Window shades and blinds merchant wholesalers


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
4233Lumber and Other Construction Materials Merchant WholesalersThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of lumber, plywood, millwork, and wood panels; brick, stone, and related construction materials; roofing, siding, and insulation materials; and other construction materials, including manufactured homes (i.e., mobile homes) and/or prefabricated buildings.
42331Lumber, Plywood, Millwork, and Wood Panel Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 423310.
423310Lumber, Plywood, Millwork, and Wood Panel Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of lumber; plywood; reconstituted wood fiber products; wood fencing; doors and windows and their frames (all materials); wood roofing and siding; and/or other wood or metal millwork.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
42332Brick, Stone, and Related Construction Material Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 423320.
423320Brick, Stone, and Related Construction Material Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of stone, cement, lime, construction sand, and gravel; brick; asphalt and concrete mixtures; and/or concrete, stone, and structural clay products.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
42333Roofing, Siding, and Insulation Material Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 423330.
423330Roofing, Siding, and Insulation Material Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of nonwood roofing and nonwood siding and insulation materials.

Cross-References.
42339Other Construction Material Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 423390.
423390Other Construction Material Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises (1) establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of manufactured homes (i.e., mobile homes) and/or prefabricated buildings and (2) establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of construction materials (except lumber, plywood, millwork, wood panels, brick, stone, roofing, siding, electrical and wiring supplies, and insulation materials).

Illustrative Examples:

Flat glass merchant wholesalers
Prefabricated buildings (except wood) merchant wholesalers
Ornamental ironwork merchant wholesalers
Wire fencing and fencing accessories merchant wholesalers
Plate glass merchant wholesalers


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
4234Professional and Commercial Equipment and Supplies Merchant WholesalersThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of photographic equipment and supplies; office, computer, and computer peripheral equipment; and medical, dental, hospital, ophthalmic, and other commercial and professional equipment and supplies.
42341Photographic Equipment and Supplies Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 423410.
423410Photographic Equipment and Supplies Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of photographic equipment and supplies (except office equipment).

Illustrative Examples:

Photofinishing equipment merchant wholesalers
Television cameras merchant wholesalers
Photographic camera equipment and supplies merchant wholesalers
Video cameras (except household-type) merchant wholesalers
Photographic film and plates merchant wholesalers


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
42342Office Equipment Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 423420.
423420Office Equipment Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of office machines and related equipment (except computers and computer peripheral equipment).

Illustrative Examples:

Accounting machines merchant wholesalers
Mailing machines merchant wholesalers
Calculators and calculating machines merchant wholesalers
Cash registers merchant wholesalers
Security safes merchant wholesalers
Copying machines merchant wholesalers
Microfilm equipment and supplies merchant wholesalers


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
42343Computer and Computer Peripheral Equipment and Software Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 423430.
423430Computer and Computer Peripheral Equipment and Software Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of computers, computer peripheral equipment, loaded computer boards, and/or computer software.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
42344Other Commercial Equipment Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 423440.
423440Other Commercial Equipment Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of commercial and related machines and equipment (except photographic equipment and supplies; office equipment; and computers and computer peripheral equipment and software) generally used in restaurants and stores.

Illustrative Examples:

Balances and scales (except laboratory) merchant wholesalers
Commercial shelving merchant wholesalers
Coin-operated merchandising machine merchant wholesalers
Electrical signs merchant wholesalers
Commercial chinaware merchant wholesalers
Partitions merchant wholesalers
Commercial cooking equipment merchant wholesalers
Store fixtures (except refrigerated) merchant wholesalers


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
42345Medical, Dental, and Hospital Equipment and Supplies Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 423450.
423450Medical, Dental, and Hospital Equipment and Supplies Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of professional medical equipment, instruments, and supplies (except ophthalmic equipment and instruments and goods used by ophthalmologists, optometrists, and opticians).

Illustrative Examples:

Dental equipment and supplies merchant wholesalers
Surgical dressings merchant wholesalers
Electromedical equipment merchant wholesalers
Patient monitoring equipment merchant wholesalers
Hospital beds merchant wholesalers
Prosthetic appliances and supplies merchant wholesalers
Hospital furniture merchant wholesalers
Surgical instruments and apparatus merchant wholesalers
Medical and dental X-ray machines and parts merchant wholesalers


Cross-References.
42346Ophthalmic Goods Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 423460.
423460Ophthalmic Goods Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of professional equipment, instruments, and/or goods sold, prescribed, or used by ophthalmologists, optometrists, and opticians.

Illustrative Examples:

Binoculars merchant wholesalers
Optometric equipment and supplies merchant wholesalers
Ophthalmic frames merchant wholesalers
Sunglasses merchant wholesalers
Ophthalmic lenses merchant wholesalers
42349Other Professional Equipment and Supplies Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 423490.
423490Other Professional Equipment and Supplies Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of professional equipment and supplies (except ophthalmic goods and medical, dental, and hospital equipment and supplies).

Illustrative Examples:

Church supplies (except silverware, plated ware) merchant wholesalers
School equipment and supplies (except books, furniture) merchant wholesalers
Drafting tables and instruments merchant wholesalers
Scientific instruments merchant wholesalers
Laboratory equipment (except medical, dental) merchant wholesalers
Surveying equipment and supplies merchant wholesalers


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
4235Metal and Mineral (except Petroleum) Merchant WholesalersThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of products of the primary metals industries (including metal service centers) and coal, coke, metal ores, and/or nonmetallic minerals (except precious and semiprecious stones and minerals used in construction).
42351Metal Service Centers and Other Metal Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 423510.
423510Metal Service Centers and Other Metal Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of products of the primary metals industries. Service centers maintain inventory and may perform functions, such as sawing, shearing, bending, leveling, cleaning, or edging, on a custom basis as part of sales transactions.

Illustrative Examples:

Cast iron pipe merchant wholesalers
Metal rods merchant wholesalers
Metal bars (except precious) merchant wholesalers
Metal sheets merchant wholesalers
Metal ingots (except precious) merchant wholesalers
Metal spikes merchant wholesalers
Metal pipe merchant wholesalers
Nails merchant wholesalers
Metal plates merchant wholesalers
Noninsulated wire merchant wholesalers


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
42352Coal and Other Mineral and Ore Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 423520.
423520Coal and Other Mineral and Ore Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of coal, coke, metal ores, and/or nonmetallic minerals (except precious and semiprecious stones and minerals used in construction, such as sand and gravel).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
4236Household Appliances and Electrical and Electronic Goods Merchant WholesalersThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of electrical apparatus and equipment, wiring supplies, and related equipment; household appliances, electric housewares, and consumer electronics; and other electronic parts and equipment.
42361Electrical Apparatus and Equipment, Wiring Supplies, and Related Equipment Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 423610.
423610Electrical Apparatus and Equipment, Wiring Supplies, and Related Equipment Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of electrical construction materials; wiring supplies; electric light fixtures; light bulbs; and/or electrical power equipment for the generation, transmission, distribution, or control of electric energy.
42362Household Appliances, Electric Housewares, and Consumer Electronics Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 423620.
423620Household Appliances, Electric Housewares, and Consumer Electronics Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of household-type gas and electric appliances (except water heaters and heating stoves (i.e., noncooking)), room air-conditioners, and/or household-type audio or video equipment.

Illustrative Examples:

Household-type sewing machines merchant wholesalers
Household-type radios (including automotive) merchant wholesalers
Household-type video cameras merchant wholesalers
Household-type refrigerators merchant wholesalers
Television sets merchant wholesalers
Toothbrushes, electric, merchant wholesalers
Curling irons, electric, merchant wholesalers


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
42369Other Electronic Parts and Equipment Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 423690.
423690Other Electronic Parts and Equipment Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of electronic parts and equipment (except electrical apparatus and equipment, wiring supplies, and construction materials; electrical and electronic appliances; and television sets and radios).

Illustrative Examples:

Blank audio and video tapes merchant wholesalers
Communications equipment merchant wholesalers
Blank compact discs (CDs) merchant wholesalers
Radar equipment merchant wholesalers
Blank digital video discs (DVDs) merchant wholesalers
Telegraph equipment merchant wholesalers
Blank diskettes merchant wholesalers
Telephone equipment merchant wholesalers
Broadcasting equipment merchant wholesalers
Unloaded computer boards merchant wholesalers


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
4237Hardware, and Plumbing and Heating Equipment and Supplies Merchant WholesalersThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of hardware; plumbing and heating equipment and supplies (hydronics); warm air heating and air-conditioning equipment and supplies; and refrigeration equipment and supplies.
42371Hardware Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 423710.
423710Hardware Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of hardware, knives, or handtools.

Illustrative Examples:

Brads merchant wholesalers
Cutlery merchant wholesalers
Knives (except disposable plastics) merchant wholesalers
Power handtools (e.g., drills, saws, sanders) merchant wholesalers
Fasteners (e.g., bolts, nuts, rivets, screws) merchant wholesalers
Staples merchant wholesalers
Handtools (except motor vehicle, machinists' precision) merchant wholesalers
Tacks merchant wholesalers


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
42372Plumbing and Heating Equipment and Supplies (Hydronics) Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 423720.
423720Plumbing and Heating Equipment and Supplies (Hydronics) Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of plumbing equipment, hydronic heating equipment, household-type water heaters, and/or supplies.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
42373Warm Air Heating and Air-Conditioning Equipment and Supplies Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 423730.
423730Warm Air Heating and Air-Conditioning Equipment and Supplies Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of warm air heating and air-conditioning equipment and supplies.

Illustrative Examples:

Air pollution control equipment and supplies merchant wholesalers
Non-portable electric baseboard heaters merchant wholesalers
Air-conditioning equipment (except room units) merchant wholesalers
Warm air central heating equipment merchant wholesalers
Automotive air-conditioners merchant wholesalers


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
42374Refrigeration Equipment and Supplies Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 423740.
423740Refrigeration Equipment and Supplies Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of refrigeration equipment (except household-type refrigerators, freezers, and air-conditioners).

Illustrative Examples:

Cold storage machinery merchant wholesalers
Refrigerated display cases merchant wholesalers
Commercial refrigerators merchant wholesalers
Water coolers merchant wholesalers


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
4238Machinery, Equipment, and Supplies Merchant WholesalersThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of construction, mining, farm, garden, industrial, service establishment, and transportation machinery, equipment, and supplies.
42381Construction and Mining (except Oil Well) Machinery and Equipment Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 423810.
423810Construction and Mining (except Oil Well) Machinery and Equipment Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of specialized machinery, equipment, and related parts generally used in construction, mining (except oil well), and logging activities.

Illustrative Examples:

Excavating machinery and equipment merchant wholesalers
Road construction and maintenance machinery merchant wholesalers
Forestry machinery and equipment merchant wholesalers
Scaffolding merchant wholesalers
Mining cranes merchant wholesalers


Cross-References.
42382Farm and Garden Machinery and Equipment Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 423820.
423820Farm and Garden Machinery and Equipment Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of specialized machinery, equipment, and related parts generally used in agricultural, farm, and lawn and garden activities.

Illustrative Examples:

Animal feeders merchant wholesalers
Milking machinery and equipment merchant wholesalers
Harvesting machinery and equipment merchant wholesalers
Planting machinery and equipment merchant wholesalers
Lawnmowers merchant wholesalers
42383Industrial Machinery and Equipment Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 423830.
423830Industrial Machinery and Equipment Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of specialized machinery, equipment, and related parts generally used in manufacturing, oil well, and warehousing activities.

Illustrative Examples:

Fluid power transmission equipment merchant wholesalers
Metalworking machinery and equipment merchant wholesalers
Food processing machinery and equipment merchant wholesalers
Oil well machinery and equipment merchant wholesalers
Material handling machinery and equipment merchant wholesalers


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
42384Industrial Supplies Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 423840.
423840Industrial Supplies Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of supplies for machinery and equipment generally used in manufacturing, oil well, and warehousing activities.

Illustrative Examples:

Industrial containers merchant wholesalers
Refractory materials (e.g., brick, blocks, shapes) merchant wholesalers
Industrial diamonds merchant wholesalers
Welding supplies (except welding gases) merchant wholesalers
Printing inks merchant wholesalers


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
42385Service Establishment Equipment and Supplies Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 423850.
423850Service Establishment Equipment and Supplies Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of specialized equipment and supplies of the type used by service establishments (except specialized equipment and supplies used in offices, stores, hotels, restaurants, schools, health and medical facilities, photographic facilities, and specialized equipment used in transportation and construction activities).

Illustrative Examples:

Amusement park equipment merchant wholesalers
Janitorial equipment and supplies merchant wholesalers
Beauty parlor equipment and supplies merchant wholesalers
Undertakers' equipment and supplies merchant wholesalers
Car wash equipment and supplies merchant wholesalers
Upholsterers' equipment and supplies (except fabrics) merchant wholesalers
Drycleaning equipment and supplies merchant wholesalers


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
42386Transportation Equipment and Supplies (except Motor Vehicle) Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 423860.
423860Transportation Equipment and Supplies (except Motor Vehicle) Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of transportation equipment and supplies (except marine pleasure craft and motor vehicles).

Illustrative Examples:

Aircraft merchant wholesalers
Railroad cars merchant wholesalers
Motorized passenger golf carts merchant wholesalers
Ships merchant wholesalers


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
4239Miscellaneous Durable Goods Merchant WholesalersThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of sporting, recreational, toy, hobby, and jewelry goods and supplies, and precious stones and metals.
42391Sporting and Recreational Goods and Supplies Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 423910.
423910Sporting and Recreational Goods and Supplies Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of sporting goods and accessories; billiard and pool supplies; sporting firearms and ammunition; and/or marine pleasure craft, equipment, and supplies.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
42392Toy and Hobby Goods and Supplies Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 423920.
423920Toy and Hobby Goods and Supplies Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of games, toys, fireworks, playing cards, hobby goods and supplies, and/or related goods.
42393Recyclable Material Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 423930.
423930Recyclable Material Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of automotive scrap, industrial scrap, and other recyclable materials. Included in this industry are auto wreckers primarily engaged in dismantling motor vehicles for the purpose of wholesaling scrap.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
42394Jewelry, Watch, Precious Stone, and Precious Metal Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 423940.
423940Jewelry, Watch, Precious Stone, and Precious Metal Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of jewelry, precious and semiprecious stones, precious metals and metal flatware, costume jewelry, watches, clocks, silverware, and/or jewelers' findings.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
42399Other Miscellaneous Durable Goods Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 423990.
423990Other Miscellaneous Durable Goods Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of durable goods (except motor vehicles and motor vehicle parts and supplies; furniture and home furnishings; lumber and other construction materials; professional and commercial equipment and supplies; metals and minerals (except petroleum); electrical goods; hardware, and plumbing and heating equipment and supplies; machinery, equipment and supplies; sporting and recreational goods and supplies; toy and hobby goods and supplies; recyclable materials; and jewelry, watches, precious stones and precious metals).

Illustrative Examples:

Firearms (except sporting) merchant wholesalers
Musical instruments merchant wholesalers
Prerecorded audio and video tapes and discs merchant wholesalers
Phonograph records merchant wholesalers
Prerecorded compact discs (CDs) and digital video discs (DVDs) merchant wholesalers
Timber and timber products (except lumber) merchant wholesalers


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
424Merchant Wholesalers, Nondurable GoodsIndustries in the Merchant Wholesalers, Nondurable Goods subsector sell nondurable goods to other businesses. Nondurable goods are items generally with a normal life expectancy of less than three years. Nondurable goods merchant wholesale trade establishments are engaged in wholesaling products, such as paper and paper products, chemicals and chemical products, drugs, textiles and textile products, apparel, footwear, groceries, farm products, petroleum and petroleum products, alcoholic beverages, books, magazines, newspapers, flowers and nursery stock, and tobacco products.

The detailed industries within the subsector are organized in the classification structure based on the products sold.

Business-to-business electronic markets, agents, and brokers primarily engaged in wholesaling nondurable goods, generally on a commission or fee basis, are classified in Subsector 425, Wholesale Electronic Markets and Agents and Brokers.
4241Paper and Paper Product Merchant WholesalersThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of bulk printing and writing paper; stationery and office supplies; and industrial and personal service paper.
42411Printing and Writing Paper Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 424110.
424110Printing and Writing Paper Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of bulk printing and/or writing paper generally on rolls for further processing.

Illustrative Examples:

Bulk envelope paper merchant wholesalers
Bulk paper (e.g., fine, printing, writing) merchant wholesalers
Bulk groundwood paper merchant wholesalers
Newsprint merchant wholesalers


Cross-References.
42412Stationery and Office Supplies Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 424120.
424120Stationery and Office Supplies Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of stationery, office supplies, and/or gift wrap.

Illustrative Examples:

Photocopy supplies merchant wholesalers
Envelope merchant wholesalers
Social stationery merchant wholesalers
File cards and folders merchant wholesalers
Office paper (e.g., carbon, computer, copier, typewriter) merchant wholesalers
Greeting cards merchant wholesalers
Writing pens merchant wholesalers
Pencils merchant wholesalers


Cross-References.
42413Industrial and Personal Service Paper Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 424130.
424130Industrial and Personal Service Paper Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of kraft wrapping and other coarse paper, paperboard, converted paper (except stationery and office supplies), and/or related disposable plastics products.

Illustrative Examples:

Corrugated paper merchant wholesalers
Disposable plastics eating utensils merchant wholesalers
Paper napkins merchant wholesalers
Paper and disposable plastics dishes merchant wholesalers
Paperboard and disposable plastics boxes merchant wholesalers
Paper and disposable plastics shipping supplies merchant wholesalers
Paper towels merchant wholesalers
Plastics bags merchant wholesalers
Paper bags merchant wholesalers
Sanitary paper products merchant wholesalers
Wrapping paper (except gift wrap) merchant wholesalers
Waxed paper merchant wholesalers


Cross-References.
4242Drugs and Druggists' Sundries Merchant WholesalersNULL
42421Drugs and Druggists' Sundries Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 424210.
424210Drugs and Druggists' Sundries Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of biological and medical products; botanical drugs and herbs; and pharmaceutical products intended for internal and/or external consumption in such forms as ampoules, tablets, capsules, vials, ointments, powders, solutions, and suspensions.

Illustrative Examples:

Antibiotics merchant wholesalers
Endocrine substances merchant wholesalers
Blood derivatives merchant wholesalers
In-vitro and in-vivo diagnostics merchant wholesalers
Botanicals merchant wholesalers
Vaccines merchant wholesalers
Cosmetics merchant wholesalers
Vitamins merchant wholesalers


Cross-References.
4243Apparel, Piece Goods, and Notions Merchant WholesalersThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of piece goods, notions, and other dry goods; men's and boys' clothing and furnishings; women's, children's, and infants' clothing and accessories; and footwear.
42431Piece Goods, Notions, and Other Dry Goods Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 424310.
424310Piece Goods, Notions, and Other Dry Goods Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of piece goods, fabrics, knitting yarns (except industrial), thread and other notions, and/or hair accessories.

Cross-References.
42432Men's and Boys' Clothing and Furnishings Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 424320.
424320Men's and Boys' Clothing and Furnishings Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of men's and/or boys' clothing and furnishings.

Illustrative Examples:

Men's and boys' hosiery merchant wholesalers
Men's and boys' suits merchant wholesalers
Men's and boys' nightwear merchant wholesalers
Men's and boys' underwear merchant wholesalers
Men's and boys' sportswear merchant wholesalers
Men's and boys' work clothing merchant wholesalers


Cross-References.
42433Women's, Children's, and Infants' Clothing and Accessories Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 424330.
424330Women's, Children's, and Infants' Clothing and Accessories Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of (1) women's, children's, infants', and/or unisex clothing and accessories and/or (2) fur clothing.

Illustrative Examples:

Dresses merchant wholesalers
Millinery merchant wholesalers
Fur clothing merchant wholesalers
Women's, children's, and infants' hosiery merchant wholesalers
Lingerie merchant wholesalers
42434Footwear Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 424340.
424340Footwear Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of footwear (including athletic) of leather, rubber, and other materials.
4244Grocery and Related Product Merchant WholesalersThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of (1) a general line of groceries; (2) packaged frozen food; (3) dairy products; (4) poultry and poultry products; (5) confectioneries; (6) fish and seafood; (7) meats and meat products; (8) fresh fruits and vegetables; and (9) other grocery and related products.
42441General Line Grocery Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 424410.
424410General Line Grocery Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of a general line (wide range) of groceries.

Cross-References.
42442Packaged Frozen Food Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 424420.
424420Packaged Frozen Food Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of packaged frozen foods (except dairy products).

Illustrative Examples:

Frozen bakery products merchant wholesalers
Packaged frozen fish merchant wholesalers
Frozen juices merchant wholesalers
Packaged frozen meats merchant wholesalers
Frozen vegetables merchant wholesalers
Packaged frozen poultry merchant wholesalers


Cross-References.
42443Dairy Product (except Dried or Canned) Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 424430.
424430Dairy Product (except Dried or Canned) Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of dairy products (except dried or canned).

Illustrative Examples:

Butter merchant wholesalers
Fluid milk (except canned) merchant wholesalers
Cheese merchant wholesalers
Ice cream and ices merchant wholesalers
Cream merchant wholesalers
Yogurt merchant wholesalers


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
42444Poultry and Poultry Product Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 424440.
424440Poultry and Poultry Product Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of poultry and/or poultry products (except canned and packaged frozen).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
42445Confectionery Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 424450.
424450Confectionery Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of confectioneries; salted or roasted nuts; popcorn; potato, corn, and similar chips; and/or fountain fruits and syrups.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
42446Fish and Seafood Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 424460.
424460Fish and Seafood Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of fish and seafood (except canned or packaged frozen).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
42447Meat and Meat Product Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 424470.
424470Meat and Meat Product Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of meats and meat products (except canned and packaged frozen) and/or lard.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
42448Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 424480.
424480Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of fresh fruits and vegetables.
42449Other Grocery and Related Products Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 424490.
424490Other Grocery and Related Products Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of groceries and related products (except a general line of groceries; packaged frozen food; dairy products (except dried and canned); poultry products (except canned); confectioneries; fish and seafood (except canned); meat products (except canned); and fresh fruits and vegetables). Included in this industry are establishments primarily engaged in the bottling and merchant wholesale distribution of spring and mineral waters processed by others.

Illustrative Examples:

Bakery products (except frozen) merchant wholesalers
Canned seafood merchant wholesalers
Canned fish merchant wholesalers
Canned vegetables merchant wholesalers
Canned fruits merchant wholesalers
Dried milk merchant wholesalers
Canned meats merchant wholesalers
Soft drinks merchant wholesalers
Canned milk merchant wholesalers


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
4245Farm Product Raw Material Merchant WholesalersThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of agricultural products (except raw milk, live poultry, and fresh fruits and vegetables), such as grains, field beans, livestock, and other farm product raw materials (excluding seeds).
42451Grain and Field Bean Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 424510.
424510Grain and Field Bean Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of grains, such as corn, wheat, oats, barley, and unpolished rice; dry beans; and soybeans and other inedible beans. Included in this industry are establishments primarily engaged in operating country or terminal grain elevators primarily for the purpose of wholesaling.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
42452Livestock Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 424520.
424520Livestock Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of livestock (except horses and mules).

Illustrative Examples:

Cattle merchant wholesalers
Hogs merchant wholesalers
Goats merchant wholesalers
Sheep merchant wholesalers


Cross-References.
42459Other Farm Product Raw Material Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 424590.
424590Other Farm Product Raw Material Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of farm products (except grain and field beans, livestock, raw milk, live poultry, and fresh fruits and vegetables).

Illustrative Examples:

Chicks, live, merchant wholesalers
Mules merchant wholesalers
Hides merchant wholesalers
Raw cotton merchant wholesalers
Horses merchant wholesalers
Raw pelts merchant wholesalers
Leaf tobacco merchant wholesalers
Sod merchant wholesalers


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
4246Chemical and Allied Products Merchant WholesalersThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of chemicals, plastics materials and basic forms and shapes, and allied products.
42461Plastics Materials and Basic Forms and Shapes Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 424610.
424610Plastics Materials and Basic Forms and Shapes Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of plastics materials and resins, and unsupported plastics film, sheet, sheeting, rod, tube, and other basic forms and shapes.
42469Other Chemical and Allied Products Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 424690.
424690Other Chemical and Allied Products Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of chemicals and allied products (except agricultural and medicinal chemicals, paints and varnishes, fireworks, and plastics materials and basic forms and shapes).

Illustrative Examples:

Acids merchant wholesalers
Industrial chemicals merchant wholesalers
Automotive chemicals (except lubricating oils and greases) merchant wholesalers
Industrial salts merchant wholesalers
Dyestuffs merchant wholesalers
Rosins merchant wholesalers
Explosives (except ammunition and fireworks) merchant wholesalers
Turpentine merchant wholesalers


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
4247Petroleum and Petroleum Products Merchant WholesalersThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of petroleum and petroleum products, including liquefied petroleum gas.
42471Petroleum Bulk Stations and TerminalsSee industry description for 424710.
424710Petroleum Bulk Stations and TerminalsThis industry comprises establishments with bulk liquid storage facilities primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of crude petroleum and petroleum products, including liquefied petroleum gas.

Cross-References.
42472Petroleum and Petroleum Products Merchant Wholesalers (except Bulk Stations and Terminals)See industry description for 424720.
424720Petroleum and Petroleum Products Merchant Wholesalers (except Bulk Stations and Terminals)This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of petroleum and petroleum products (except from bulk liquid storage facilities).

Illustrative Examples:

Bottled liquid petroleum gas merchant wholesalers
Gasoline merchant wholesalers (except bulk stations, terminals)
Fuel oil merchant wholesalers (except bulk stations, terminals)
Lubricating oil and grease merchant wholesalers (except bulk stations, terminals)


Cross-References.
4248Beer, Wine, and Distilled Alcoholic Beverage Merchant WholesalersThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of beer, ale, wine, and/or distilled alcoholic beverages.
42481Beer and Ale Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 424810.
424810Beer and Ale Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of beer, ale, porter, and other fermented malt beverages.
42482Wine and Distilled Alcoholic Beverage Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 424820.
424820Wine and Distilled Alcoholic Beverage Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of wine, distilled alcoholic beverages, and/or neutral spirits and ethyl alcohol used in blended wines and distilled liquors.
4249Miscellaneous Nondurable Goods Merchant WholesalersThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of nondurable goods, such as farm supplies; books, periodicals and newspapers; flowers; nursery stock; paints; varnishes; tobacco and tobacco products; and other miscellaneous nondurable goods, such as cut Christmas trees and pet supplies.
42491Farm Supplies Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 424910.
424910Farm Supplies Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of farm supplies, such as animal feeds, fertilizers, agricultural chemicals, pesticides, plant seeds, and plant bulbs.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
42492Book, Periodical, and Newspaper Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 424920.
424920Book, Periodical, and Newspaper Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of books, periodicals, and newspapers.
42493Flower, Nursery Stock, and Florists' Supplies Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 424930.
424930Flower, Nursery Stock, and Florists' Supplies Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of flowers, florists' supplies, and/or nursery stock (except plant seeds and plant bulbs).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
42494Tobacco and Tobacco Product Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 424940.
424940Tobacco and Tobacco Product Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of tobacco products, such as cigarettes, snuff, cigars, and pipe tobacco.

Cross-References.
42495Paint, Varnish, and Supplies Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 424950.
424950Paint, Varnish, and Supplies Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of paints, varnishes, and similar coatings; pigments; wallpaper; and supplies, such as paintbrushes and rollers.

Cross-References.
42499Other Miscellaneous Nondurable Goods Merchant WholesalersSee industry description for 424990.
424990Other Miscellaneous Nondurable Goods Merchant WholesalersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of nondurable goods (except printing and writing paper; stationery and office supplies; industrial and personal service paper; drugs and druggists' sundries; apparel, piece goods, and notions; grocery and related products; farm product raw materials; chemical and allied products; petroleum and petroleum products; beer, wine, and distilled alcoholic beverages; farm supplies; books, periodicals, and newspapers; flowers, nursery stock, and florists' supplies; tobacco and tobacco products; and paint, varnishes, wallpaper, and supplies).

Illustrative Examples:

Artists' supplies merchant wholesalers
Pet supplies (except pet food) merchant wholesalers
Burlap merchant wholesalers
Statuary (except religious) merchant wholesalers
Christmas trees (e.g., artificial, cut) merchant wholesalers
Textile bags merchant wholesalers
Industrial yarns merchant wholesalers


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
425Wholesale Electronic Markets and Agents and BrokersIndustries in the Wholesale Electronic Markets and Agents and Brokers subsector arrange for the sale of goods owned by others, generally on a fee or commission basis. They act on behalf of the buyers and sellers of goods. This subsector contains agents and brokers as well as business-to-business electronic markets that facilitate wholesale trade.
4251Wholesale Electronic Markets and Agents and BrokersNULL
42511Business to Business Electronic MarketsSee industry description for 425110.
425110Business to Business Electronic MarketsThis industry comprises business-to-business electronic markets bringing together buyers and sellers of goods using the Internet or other electronic means and generally receiving a commission or fee for the service. Business-to-business electronic markets for durable and nondurable goods are included in this industry.

Cross-References.
42512Wholesale Trade Agents and BrokersSee industry description for 425120.
425120Wholesale Trade Agents and BrokersThis industry comprises wholesale trade agents and brokers acting on behalf of buyers or sellers in the wholesale distribution of goods. Agents and brokers do not take title to the goods being sold but rather receive a commission or fee for their service. Agents and brokers for all durable and nondurable goods are included in this industry.

Illustrative Examples:

Independent sales representatives
Manufacturers' sales representatives


Cross-References.
44-45Retail Trade TThe Sector as a Whole

The Retail Trade sector comprises establishments engaged in retailing merchandise, generally without transformation, and rendering services incidental to the sale of merchandise.

The retailing process is the final step in the distribution of merchandise; retailers are, therefore, organized to sell merchandise in small quantities to the general public. This sector comprises two main types of retailers: store and nonstore retailers.

1. Store retailers operate fixed point-of-sale locations, located and designed to attract a high volume of walk-in customers. In general, retail stores have extensive displays of merchandise and use mass-media advertising to attract customers. They typically sell merchandise to the general public for personal or household consumption, but some also serve business and institutional clients. These include office supply stores, computer and software stores, building materials dealers, plumbing supply stores, and electrical supply stores. Catalog showrooms, gasoline stations, automotive dealers, and mobile home dealers are treated as store retailers.

In addition to retailing merchandise, some types of store retailers are also engaged in the provision of after-sales services, such as repair and installation. For example, new automobile dealers, electronics and appliance stores, and musical instrument and supplies stores often provide repair services. As a general rule, establishments engaged in retailing merchandise and providing after-sales services are classified in this sector.

The first eleven subsectors of retail trade are store retailers. The establishments are grouped into industries and industry groups typically based on one or more of the following criteria:

(a) The merchandise line or lines carried by the store; for example, specialty stores are distinguished from general-line stores.

(b) The usual trade designation of the establishments. This criterion applies in cases where a store type is well recognized by the industry and the public, but difficult to define strictly in terms of merchandise lines carried; for example, pharmacies, hardware stores, and department stores.

(c) Capital requirements in terms of display equipment; for example, food stores have equipment requirements not found in other retail industries.

(d) Human resource requirements in terms of expertise; for example, the staff of an automobile dealer requires knowledge in financing, registering, and licensing issues that are not necessary in other retail industries.

2. Nonstore retailers, like store retailers, are organized to serve the general public, but their retailing methods differ. The establishments of this subsector reach customers and market merchandise with methods, such as the broadcasting of "infomercials," the broadcasting and publishing of direct-response advertising, the publishing of paper and electronic catalogs, door-to-door solicitation, in-home demonstration, selling from portable stalls (street vendors, except food), and distribution through vending machines. Establishments engaged in the direct sale (nonstore) of products, such as home heating oil dealers and home delivery newspaper routes, are included here.

The buying of goods for resale is a characteristic of retail trade establishments that particularly distinguishes them from establishments in the agriculture, manufacturing, and construction industries. For example, farms that sell their products at or from the point of production are not classified in retail, but rather in agriculture. Similarly, establishments that both manufacture and sell their products to the general public are not classified in retail, but rather in manufacturing. However, establishments that engage in processing activities incidental to retailing are classified in retail. This includes optical goods stores that do in-store grinding of lenses, and meat and seafood markets.

Wholesalers also engage in the buying of goods for resale, but they are not usually organized to serve the general public. They typically operate from a warehouse or office, and neither the design nor the location of these premises is intended to solicit a high volume of walk-in traffic. Wholesalers supply institutional, industrial, wholesale, and retail clients; their operations are, therefore, generally organized to purchase, sell, and deliver merchandise in larger quantities. However, dealers of durable nonconsumer goods, such as farm machinery and heavy-duty trucks, are included in wholesale trade even if they often sell these products in single units.
441Motor Vehicle and Parts DealersIndustries in the Motor Vehicle and Parts Dealers subsector retail motor vehicles and parts from fixed point-of-sale locations. Establishments in this subsector typically operate from a showroom and/or an open lot where the vehicles are on display. The display of vehicles and the related parts require little by way of display equipment. The personnel generally include both the sales and sales support staff familiar with the requirements for registering and financing a vehicle as well as a staff of parts experts and mechanics trained to provide repair and maintenance services for the vehicles. Specific industries included in this subsector identify the type of vehicle being retailed.

Sales of capital or durable nonconsumer goods, such as medium- and heavy-duty trucks, are always included in wholesale trade. These goods are virtually never sold through retail methods.
4411Automobile DealersThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing new and used automobiles and light trucks, such as sport utility vehicles, and passenger and cargo vans.
44111New Car DealersSee industry description for 441110.
441110New Car DealersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing new automobiles and light trucks, such as sport utility vehicles, and passenger and cargo vans, or retailing these new vehicles in combination with activities, such as repair services, retailing used cars, and selling replacement parts and accessories.

Illustrative Examples:

Automobile dealers, new only, or new and used
Light utility truck dealers, new only, or new and used


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
44112Used Car DealersSee industry description for 441120.
441120Used Car DealersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing used automobiles and light trucks, such as sport utility vehicles, and passenger and cargo vans.

Illustrative Examples:

Antique auto dealers
Light truck dealers, used only
Automobile dealers, used only


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
4412Other Motor Vehicle DealersThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing new and used vehicles (except automobiles, light trucks, such as sport utility vehicles, and passenger and cargo vans).
44121Recreational Vehicle DealersSee industry description for 441210.
441210Recreational Vehicle DealersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing new and/or used recreational vehicles commonly referred to as RVs or retailing these new vehicles in combination with activities, such as repair services and selling replacement parts and accessories.

Illustrative Examples:

Motor home dealers
Recreational vehicle (RV) parts and accessories stores
Recreational vehicle (RV) dealers
Travel trailer dealers


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
44122Motorcycle, Boat, and Other Motor Vehicle DealersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing new and used motorcycles, boats, and other vehicles (except automobiles, light trucks, and recreational vehicles), or retailing these new vehicles in combination with activities, such as repair services and selling replacement parts and accessories.

Illustrative Examples:

Aircraft dealers
Motorcycle dealers
All-terrain vehicle (ATV) dealers
Utility trailer dealers
Boat dealers, new and used


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
441222Boat DealersThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) retailing new and/or used boats or retailing new boats in combination with activities, such as repair services and selling replacement parts and accessories, and/or (2) retailing new and/or used outboard motors, boat trailers, marine supplies, parts, and accessories.

Illustrative Examples:

Boat dealers (e.g., power boats, rowboats, sailboats)
Outboard motor dealers
Marine supply dealers


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
441228Motorcycle, ATV, and All Other Motor Vehicle DealersThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing new and/or used motorcycles, motor scooters, motorbikes, mopeds, off-road all-terrain vehicles (ATV), personal watercraft, utility trailers, and other motor vehicles (except automobiles, light trucks, recreational vehicles, and boats) or retailing these new vehicles in combination with activities, such as repair services and selling replacement parts and accessories.

Illustrative Examples:

All-terrain vehicle (ATV) dealers
Motorcycle dealers
Moped dealers
Motorcycle parts and accessories dealers
Personal watercraft dealers
Aircraft dealers
Snowmobile dealers
Powered golf cart dealers
Utility trailer dealers


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
4413Automotive Parts, Accessories, and Tire StoresThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing new, used, and/or rebuilt automotive parts and accessories, including tires and tubes. Included in this industry group are establishments primarily engaged in retailing automotive parts and accessories in combination with automotive repair services.
44131Automotive Parts and Accessories StoresSee industry description for 441310.
441310Automotive Parts and Accessories StoresThis industry comprises one or more of the following: (1) establishments known as automotive supply stores primarily engaged in retailing new, used, and/or rebuilt automotive parts and accessories; (2) automotive supply stores that are primarily engaged in both retailing automotive parts and accessories and repairing automobiles; and (3) establishments primarily engaged in retailing and installing automotive accessories.

Illustrative Examples:

Automotive parts and supply stores
Truck cap stores
Automotive stereo stores
Used automotive parts stores
Speed shops


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
44132Tire DealersSee industry description for 441320.
441320Tire DealersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing new and/or used tires and tubes or retailing new tires in combination with automotive repair services.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
442Furniture and Home Furnishings StoresIndustries in the Furniture and Home Furnishings Stores subsector retail new furniture and home furnishings from fixed point-of-sale locations. Establishments in this subsector usually operate from showrooms and have substantial areas for the presentation of their products. Many offer interior decorating services in addition to the sale of products.
4421Furniture StoresNULL
44211Furniture StoresSee industry description for 442110.
442110Furniture StoresThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing new furniture, such as household furniture (e.g., baby furniture, box springs, and mattresses) and outdoor furniture; office furniture (except sold in combination with office supplies and equipment); and/or furniture sold in combination with major appliances, home electronics, home furnishings, or floor coverings.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
4422Home Furnishings StoresThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing new home furnishings (except furniture).
44221Floor Covering StoresSee industry description for 442210.
442210Floor Covering StoresThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing new floor coverings, such as rugs and carpets, vinyl floor coverings, and floor tile (except ceramic or wood only); or retailing new floor coverings in combination with installation and repair services.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
44229Other Home Furnishings StoresThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing new home furnishings (except furniture and floor coverings).

Illustrative Examples:

Bath shops
Kitchenware stores
Chinaware stores
Window treatment stores
Glassware stores


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
442291Window Treatment StoresThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing new window treatments, such as curtains, drapes, blinds, and shades.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
442299All Other Home Furnishings StoresThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing new home furnishings (except floor coverings, furniture, and window treatments).

Illustrative Examples:

Bath shops
Kitchenware stores
Chinaware stores
Linen stores
Electric lamp shops
Picture frame shops, custom
Glassware stores
Wood-burning stove stores
Housewares stores


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
443Electronics and Appliance StoresIndustries in the Electronics and Appliance Stores subsector retail new electronics and appliances from point-of-sale locations. Establishments in this subsector often operate from locations that have special provisions for floor displays requiring special electrical capacity to accommodate the proper demonstration of the products. The staff includes sales personnel knowledgeable in the characteristics and warranties of the line of goods retailed and may also include trained repair persons to handle the maintenance and repair of the electronic equipment and appliances. The classifications within this subsector are made principally on the type of product and knowledge required to operate each type of store.
4431Electronics and Appliance StoresNULL
44314Electronics and Appliance StoresThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one of the following: (1) retailing an array of new household-type appliances and consumer-type electronic products, such as televisions, computers, and cameras; (2) specializing in retailing a single line of new consumer-type electronic products; (3) retailing these new products in combination with repair and support services; (4) retailing new prepackaged computer software; and/or (5) retailing prerecorded audio and video media, such as CDs, DVDs, and tapes.

Illustrative Examples:

Appliance stores, household-type
Cellular telephone accessories stores
Consumer-type electronic stores (e.g., televisions, computers, cameras)


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
443141Household Appliance StoresThis U.S. industry comprises establishments known as appliance stores primarily engaged in retailing an array of new household appliances, such as refrigerators, dishwashers, ovens, irons, coffee makers, hair dryers, electric razors, room air-conditioners, microwave ovens, sewing machines, and vacuum cleaners, or retailing new appliances in combination with appliance repair services.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
443142Electronics StoresThis U.S. industry comprises: (1) establishments known as consumer electronics stores primarily engaged in retailing a general line of new consumer-type electronic products such as televisions, computers, and cameras; (2) establishments specializing in retailing a single line of consumer-type electronic products; (3) establishments primarily engaged in retailing these new electronic products in combination with repair and support services; (4) establishments primarily engaged in retailing new prepackaged computer software; and/or (5) establishments primarily engaged in retailing prerecorded audio and video media, such as CDs, DVDs, and tapes.

Illustrative Examples:

Cellular telephone accessories stores
Consumer-type electronic stores (e.g., televisions, computers, cameras)
Stereo stores (except automotive)
Radio and television stores
Computer stores


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
444Building Material and Garden Equipment and Supplies DealersIndustries in the Building Material and Garden Equipment and Supplies Dealers subsector retail new building material and garden equipment and supplies from fixed point-of-sale locations. Establishments in this subsector have display equipment designed to handle lumber and related products and garden equipment and supplies that may be kept either indoors or outdoors under covered areas. The staff is usually knowledgeable in the use of the specific products being retailed in the construction, repair, and maintenance of the home and associated grounds.
4441Building Material and Supplies DealersThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing new building materials and supplies.
44411Home CentersSee industry description for 444110.
444110Home CentersThis industry comprises establishments known as home centers primarily engaged in retailing a general line of new home repair and improvement materials and supplies, such as lumber, plumbing goods, electrical goods, tools, housewares, hardware, and lawn and garden supplies, with no one merchandise line predominating. The merchandise lines are normally arranged in separate departments.

Cross-References.
44412Paint and Wallpaper StoresSee industry description for 444120.
444120Paint and Wallpaper StoresThis industry comprises establishments known as paint and wallpaper stores primarily engaged in retailing paint, wallpaper, and related supplies.

Cross-References.
44413Hardware StoresSee industry description for 444130.
444130Hardware StoresThis industry comprises establishments known as hardware stores primarily engaged in retailing a general line of new hardware items, such as tools and builders' hardware.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
44419Other Building Material DealersSee industry description for 444190.
444190Other Building Material DealersThis industry comprises establishments (except those known as home centers, paint and wallpaper stores, and hardware stores) primarily engaged in retailing specialized lines of new building materials, such as lumber, fencing, glass, doors, plumbing fixtures and supplies, electrical supplies, prefabricated buildings and kits, and kitchen and bath cabinets and countertops to be installed.

Illustrative Examples:

Electrical supply stores
Kitchen cabinet (except custom) stores
Fencing dealers
Lumber yards, retail
Floor covering stores, wood or ceramic tile only
Plumbing supply stores
Garage door dealers
Prefabricated building dealers
Glass stores


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
4442Lawn and Garden Equipment and Supplies StoresThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing new lawn and garden equipment and supplies.
44421Outdoor Power Equipment StoresSee industry description for 444210.
444210Outdoor Power Equipment StoresThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing new outdoor power equipment or retailing new outdoor power equipment in combination with activities, such as repair services and selling replacement parts.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
44422Nursery, Garden Center, and Farm Supply StoresSee industry description for 444220.
444220Nursery, Garden Center, and Farm Supply StoresThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing nursery and garden products, such as trees, shrubs, plants, seeds, bulbs, and sod, that are predominantly grown elsewhere. These establishments may sell a limited amount of a product they grow themselves. Also included in this industry are establishments primarily engaged in retailing farm supplies, such as animal (except pet) feed.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
445Food and Beverage StoresIndustries in the Food and Beverage Stores subsector usually retail food and beverage merchandise from fixed point-of-sale locations. Establishments in this subsector have special equipment (e.g., freezers, refrigerated display cases, refrigerators) for displaying food and beverage goods. They have staff trained in the processing of food products to guarantee the proper storage and sanitary conditions required by regulatory authority.
4451Grocery StoresThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing a general line of food products.
44511Supermarkets and Other Grocery (except Convenience) StoresSee industry description for 445110.
445110Supermarkets and Other Grocery (except Convenience) StoresThis industry comprises establishments generally known as supermarkets and grocery stores primarily engaged in retailing a general line of food, such as canned and frozen foods; fresh fruits and vegetables; and fresh and prepared meats, fish, and poultry. Included in this industry are delicatessen-type establishments primarily engaged in retailing a general line of food.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
44512Convenience StoresSee industry description for 445120.
445120Convenience StoresThis industry comprises establishments known as convenience stores or food marts (except those with fuel pumps) primarily engaged in retailing a limited line of goods that generally includes milk, bread, soda, and snacks.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
4452Specialty Food StoresThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing specialized lines of food.
44521Meat MarketsSee industry description for 445210.
445210Meat MarketsThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing fresh, frozen, or cured meats and poultry. Delicatessen-type establishments primarily engaged in retailing fresh meat are included in this industry.

Illustrative Examples:

Baked ham stores
Meat markets
Butcher shops
Poultry dealers
Frozen meat shops


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
44522Fish and Seafood MarketsSee industry description for 445220.
445220Fish and Seafood MarketsThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing fresh, frozen, or cured fish and seafood products.

Cross-References.
44523Fruit and Vegetable MarketsSee industry description for 445230.
445230Fruit and Vegetable MarketsThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing fresh fruits and vegetables.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
44529Other Specialty Food StoresThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing specialty foods (except meat, fish, seafood, and fruits and vegetables) not for immediate consumption and not made on the premises.

Illustrative Examples:

Baked goods stores (except immediate consumption)
Dairy product stores
Coffee and tea (i.e., packaged) stores
Gourmet food stores
Confectionery (i.e., packaged) stores
Nut (i.e., packaged) stores


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
445291Baked Goods StoresThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing baked goods not for immediate consumption and not made on the premises.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
445292Confectionery and Nut StoresThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing candy and other confections, nuts, and popcorn not for immediate consumption and not made on the premises.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
445299All Other Specialty Food StoresThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing miscellaneous specialty foods (except meat, fish, seafood, fruit and vegetables, confections, nuts, popcorn, and baked goods) not for immediate consumption and not made on the premises.

Illustrative Examples:

Coffee and tea (i.e., packaged) stores
Soft drink (i.e., bottled) stores
Dairy product stores
Spice stores
Gourmet food stores
Water (i.e., bottled) stores


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
4453Beer, Wine, and Liquor StoresNULL
44531Beer, Wine, and Liquor StoresSee industry description for 445310.
445310Beer, Wine, and Liquor StoresThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing packaged alcoholic beverages, such as ale, beer, wine, and liquor.

Cross-References.
446Health and Personal Care StoresIndustries in the Health and Personal Care Stores subsector retail health and personal care merchandise from fixed point-of-sale locations. Establishments in this subsector are characterized principally by the products they retail, and some health and personal care stores may have specialized staff trained in dealing with the products. Staff may include pharmacists, opticians, and other professionals engaged in retailing, advising customers, and/or fitting the product sold to the customer's needs.
4461Health and Personal Care StoresNULL
44611Pharmacies and Drug StoresSee industry description for 446110.
446110Pharmacies and Drug StoresThis industry comprises establishments known as pharmacies and drug stores engaged in retailing prescription or nonprescription drugs and medicines.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
44612Cosmetics, Beauty Supplies, and Perfume StoresSee industry description for 446120.
446120Cosmetics, Beauty Supplies, and Perfume StoresThis industry comprises establishments known as cosmetic or perfume stores or beauty supply shops primarily engaged in retailing cosmetics, perfumes, toiletries, and personal grooming products.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
44613Optical Goods StoresSee industry description for 446130.
446130Optical Goods StoresThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) retailing and fitting prescription eyeglasses and contact lenses; (2) retailing prescription eyeglasses in combination with the grinding of lenses to order on the premises; and (3) selling nonprescription eyeglasses.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
44619Other Health and Personal Care StoresThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing health and personal care items (except drugs, medicines, optical goods, perfumes, cosmetics, and beauty supplies).

Illustrative Examples:

Convalescent supply stores
Prosthetic stores
Food (i.e., health) supplement stores
Sick room supply stores
Hearing aid stores


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
446191Food (Health) Supplement StoresThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing food supplement products, such as vitamins, nutrition supplements, and body enhancing supplements.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
446199All Other Health and Personal Care StoresThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing specialized lines of health and personal care merchandise (except drugs, medicines, optical goods, cosmetics, beauty supplies, perfume, and food supplement products).

Illustrative Examples:

Convalescent supply stores
Prosthetic stores
Hearing aid stores
Sick room supply stores


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
447Gasoline StationsIndustries in the Gasoline Stations subsector retail automotive fuels (e.g., gasoline, diesel fuel, gasohol, alternative fuels) and automotive oils or retail these products in combination with convenience store items. These establishments have specialized equipment for storing and dispensing automotive fuels.
4471Gasoline StationsNULL
44711Gasoline Stations with Convenience StoresSee industry description for 447110.
447110Gasoline Stations with Convenience StoresThis industry comprises establishments engaged in retailing automotive fuels (e.g., diesel fuel, gasohol, gasoline) in combination with convenience store or food mart items. These establishments can either be in a convenience store (i.e., food mart) setting or a gasoline station setting. These establishments may also provide automotive repair services.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
44719Other Gasoline StationsSee industry description for 447190.
447190Other Gasoline StationsThis industry comprises establishments known as gasoline stations (except those with convenience stores) primarily engaged in (1) retailing automotive fuels (e.g., diesel fuel, gasohol, gasoline, alternative fuels) or (2) retailing these fuels in combination with activities, such as providing repair services; selling automotive oils, replacement parts, and accessories; and/or providing food services.

Illustrative Examples:

Gasoline stations without convenience stores
Truck stops
Marine service stations


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
448Clothing and Clothing Accessories StoresIndustries in the Clothing and Clothing Accessories Stores subsector retail new clothing and clothing accessories from fixed point-of-sale locations. Establishments in this subsector have similar display equipment and staff that is knowledgeable regarding fashion trends and the proper match of styles, colors, and combinations of clothing and accessories to the characteristics and tastes of the customer.
4481Clothing StoresThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing new clothing.
44811Men's Clothing StoresSee industry description for 448110.
448110Men's Clothing StoresThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing a general line of new men's and boys' clothing. These establishments may provide basic alterations, such as hemming, taking in or letting out seams, or lengthening or shortening sleeves.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
44812Women's Clothing StoresSee industry description for 448120.
448120Women's Clothing StoresThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing a general line of new women's, misses', and juniors' clothing, including maternity wear. These establishments may provide basic alterations, such as hemming, taking in or letting out seams, or lengthening or shortening sleeves.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
44813Children's and Infants' Clothing StoresSee industry description for 448130.
448130Children's and Infants' Clothing StoresThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing a general line of new children's and infants' clothing. These establishments may provide basic alterations, such as hemming, taking in or letting out seams, or lengthening or shortening sleeves.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
44814Family Clothing StoresSee industry description for 448140.
448140Family Clothing StoresThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing a general line of new clothing for men, women, and children, without specializing in sales for an individual gender or age group. These establishments may provide basic alterations, such as hemming, taking in or letting out seams, or lengthening or shortening sleeves.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
44815Clothing Accessories StoresSee industry description for 448150.
448150Clothing Accessories StoresThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing single or combination lines of new clothing accessories, such as hats and caps, costume jewelry, gloves, handbags, ties, wigs, toupees, and belts.

Illustrative Examples:

Costume jewelry stores
Wig and hairpiece stores
Neckwear stores


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
44819Other Clothing StoresSee industry description for 448190.
448190Other Clothing StoresThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing specialized lines of new clothing (except general lines of men's, women's, children's, infants', and family clothing). These establishments may provide basic alterations, such as hemming, taking in or letting out seams, or lengthening or shortening sleeves.

Illustrative Examples:

Bridal gown (except custom) shops
Leather coat stores
Costume shops
Lingerie stores
Fur apparel stores
Swimwear stores
Hosiery stores
Uniform (except athletic) stores


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
4482Shoe StoresNULL
44821Shoe StoresSee industry description for 448210.
448210Shoe StoresThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing all types of new footwear (except hosiery and specialty sports footwear, such as golf shoes, bowling shoes, and spiked shoes). Establishments primarily engaged in retailing new tennis shoes or sneakers are included in this industry.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
4483Jewelry, Luggage, and Leather Goods StoresThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing new jewelry (except costume jewelry); new sterling and plated silverware; new watches and clocks; and new luggage with or without a general line of new leather goods and accessories, such as hats, gloves, handbags, ties, and belts.
44831Jewelry StoresSee industry description for 448310.
448310Jewelry StoresThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing one or more of the following items: (1) new jewelry (except costume jewelry); (2) new sterling and plated silverware; and (3) new watches and clocks. Also included are establishments retailing these new products in combination with lapidary work and/or repair services.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
44832Luggage and Leather Goods StoresSee industry description for 448320.
448320Luggage and Leather Goods StoresThis industry comprises establishments known as luggage and leather goods stores primarily engaged in retailing new luggage, briefcases, and trunks, or retailing these new products in combination with a general line of leather items (except leather apparel), such as belts, gloves, and handbags.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
451Sporting Goods, Hobby, Musical Instrument, and Book StoresIndustries in the Sporting Goods, Hobby, Musical Instrument, and Book Stores subsector are engaged in retailing and providing expertise on the use of sporting equipment or supplies for other specific leisure activities, such as needlework and musical instruments. Book stores are also included in this subsector.
4511Sporting Goods, Hobby, and Musical Instrument StoresThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing new sporting goods, games and toys, and musical instruments.
45111Sporting Goods StoresSee industry description for 451110.
451110Sporting Goods StoresThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing new sporting goods, such as bicycles and bicycle parts; camping equipment; exercise and fitness equipment; athletic uniforms; specialty sports footwear; and other sporting goods, equipment, and accessories.

Illustrative Examples:

Athletic uniform supply stores
Fishing supply stores
Bicycle (except motorized) shops
Golf pro shops
Bowling equipment and supply stores
Saddlery stores
Diving equipment stores
Sporting goods (e.g., scuba, skiing, outdoor) stores
Exercise equipment stores
Sporting gun shops


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
45112Hobby, Toy, and Game StoresSee industry description for 451120.
451120Hobby, Toy, and Game StoresThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing new toys, games, and hobby and craft supplies (except needlecraft).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
45113Sewing, Needlework, and Piece Goods StoresSee industry description for 451130.
451130Sewing, Needlework, and Piece Goods StoresThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing new sewing supplies, fabrics, patterns, yarns, and other needlework accessories or retailing these products in combination with selling new sewing machines.

Illustrative Examples:

Fabric shops
Sewing supply stores
Needlecraft sewing supply stores
Upholstery materials stores


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
45114Musical Instrument and Supplies StoresSee industry description for 451140.
451140Musical Instrument and Supplies StoresThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing new musical instruments, sheet music, and related supplies; or retailing these new products in combination with musical instrument repair, rental, or music instruction.

Illustrative Examples:

Musical instrument stores
Sheet music stores
Piano stores


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
4512Book Stores and News DealersNULL
45121Book Stores and News DealersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing new books, newspapers, magazines, and other periodicals.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
451211Book StoresThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing new books.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
451212News Dealers and NewsstandsThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing current newspapers, magazines, and other periodicals.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
452General Merchandise StoresIndustries in the General Merchandise Stores subsector retail new general merchandise from fixed point-of-sale locations. Establishments in this subsector are unique in that they have the equipment and staff capable of retailing a large variety of goods from a single location. This includes a variety of display equipment and staff trained to provide information on many lines of products.
4522Department StoresNULL
45221Department StoresSee industry description for 452210.
452210Department StoresThis industry comprises establishments known as department stores that have separate departments for general lines of new merchandise, such as apparel, jewelry, home furnishings, and toys, with no one merchandise line predominating. Department stores may sell perishable groceries, such as fresh fruits, vegetables, and dairy products, but such sales are insignificant. Department stores may have separate customer checkout areas in each department, central customer checkout areas, or both.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
4523General Merchandise Stores, including Warehouse Clubs and SupercentersNULL
45231General Merchandise Stores, including Warehouse Clubs and SupercentersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing new goods in general merchandise stores (except department stores). These establishments retail a general line of new merchandise, such as apparel, automotive parts, dry goods, hardware, groceries, housewares, and home furnishings, with no one merchandise line predominating. Establishments known as warehouse clubs, superstores, or supercenters are included in this industry.

Illustrative Examples:

Dollar stores
General merchandise catalog showrooms (except catalog mail-order)
General merchandise trading posts
General stores
Home and auto supply stores
Superstores (i.e., food and general merchandise)
Variety stores
Warehouse clubs (i.e., food and general merchandise)


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
452311Warehouse Clubs and SupercentersThis U.S. industry comprises establishments known as warehouse clubs, superstores, or supercenters, primarily engaged in retailing a general line of groceries, including a significant amount and variety of fresh fruits, vegetables, dairy products, meats, and other perishable groceries, in combination with a general line of new merchandise, such as apparel, furniture, and appliances.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
452319All Other General Merchandise StoresThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing new goods in general merchandise stores (except department stores, warehouse clubs, superstores, and supercenters). These establishments retail a general line of new merchandise, such as apparel, automotive parts, dry goods, hardware, housewares or home furnishings, and other lines in limited amounts, with none of the lines predominating.

Illustrative Examples:

Dollar stores
General merchandise catalog showrooms (except catalog mail-order)
General merchandise trading posts
General stores
Home and auto supply stores
Variety stores


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
453Miscellaneous Store RetailersIndustries in the Miscellaneous Store Retailers subsector retail merchandise from fixed point-of-sale locations (except new or used motor vehicles and parts; new furniture and home furnishings; new appliances and electronic products; new building materials and garden equipment and supplies; food and beverages; health and personal care goods; gasoline; new clothing and accessories; and new sporting goods, hobby goods, books, and music). Establishments in this subsector include stores with unique characteristics, such as florists, used merchandise stores, and pet and pet supply stores.
4531FloristsNULL
45311FloristsSee industry description for 453110.
453110FloristsThis industry comprises establishments known as florists primarily engaged in retailing cut flowers, floral arrangements, and potted plants purchased from others. These establishments usually prepare the arrangements they sell.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
4532Office Supplies, Stationery, and Gift StoresThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing new office supplies, stationery, gifts, novelty merchandise, and souvenirs.
45321Office Supplies and Stationery StoresSee industry description for 453210.
453210Office Supplies and Stationery StoresThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) retailing new stationery, school supplies, and office supplies; (2) retailing a combination of new office equipment, furniture, and supplies; and (3) retailing new office equipment, furniture, and supplies in combination with selling new computers.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
45322Gift, Novelty, and Souvenir StoresSee industry description for 453220.
453220Gift, Novelty, and Souvenir StoresThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing new gifts, novelty merchandise, souvenirs, greeting cards, seasonal and holiday decorations, and curios.

Illustrative Examples:

Balloon shops
Greeting card shops
Christmas stores
Novelty shops
Curio shops
Souvenir shops
Gift shops
Fruit basket or fruit bouquet stores


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
4533Used Merchandise StoresNULL
45331Used Merchandise StoresSee industry description for 453310.
453310Used Merchandise StoresThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing used merchandise, antiques, and secondhand goods (except motor vehicles, such as automobiles, RVs, motorcycles, and boats; motor vehicle parts; tires; and mobile homes).

Illustrative Examples:

Antique shops
Used household-type appliance stores
Used book stores
Used merchandise thrift shops
Used clothing stores
Used sporting goods stores


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
4539Other Miscellaneous Store RetailersThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing new miscellaneous specialty store merchandise (except motor vehicle and parts dealers; furniture and home furnishings stores; consumer-type electronics and appliance stores; building material and garden equipment and supplies dealers; food and beverage stores; health and personal care stores; gasoline stations; clothing and clothing accessories stores; sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores; general merchandise stores; florists; office supplies, stationery, and gift stores; and used merchandise stores). This industry group also includes establishments primarily engaged in retailing a general line of new and used merchandise on an auction basis (except electronic auctions).
45391Pet and Pet Supplies StoresSee industry description for 453910.
453910Pet and Pet Supplies StoresThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing pets, pet foods, and pet supplies.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
45392Art DealersSee industry description for 453920.
453920Art DealersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing original and limited edition art works. Included in this industry are establishments primarily engaged in displaying works of art for retail sale in art galleries.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
45393Manufactured (Mobile) Home DealersSee industry description for 453930.
453930Manufactured (Mobile) Home DealersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing new and/or used manufactured homes (i.e., mobile homes), parts, and equipment.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
45399All Other Miscellaneous Store RetailersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing specialized lines of merchandise (except motor vehicle and parts dealers; furniture and home furnishings stores; electronics and appliance stores; building material and garden equipment and supplies dealers; food and beverage stores; health and personal care stores; gasoline stations; clothing and clothing accessories stores; sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores; general merchandise stores; florists; office supplies, stationery, and gift stores; used merchandise stores; pet and pet supplies stores; art dealers; and manufactured home (i.e., mobile home) dealers). This industry also includes establishments primarily engaged in retailing a general line of new and used merchandise on an auction basis (except electronic auctions).

Illustrative Examples:

Art supply stores
Swimming pool supply stores, new
Cemetery memorial (e.g., markers, headstones, vaults) dealers
Tobacco stores
Cigar stores


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
453991Tobacco StoresThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing cigarettes, cigars, tobacco, pipes, and other smokers' supplies.

Illustrative Examples:

Cigar stores
Smokers' supply stores
Cigarette stands (i.e., permanent)
Tobacco stores


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
453998All Other Miscellaneous Store Retailers (except Tobacco Stores)This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing specialized lines of merchandise (except motor vehicle and parts dealers; furniture and home furnishings stores; electronics and appliance stores; building material and garden equipment and supplies dealers; food and beverage stores; health and personal care stores; gasoline stations; clothing and clothing accessories stores; sporting goods, hobby, book and music stores; general merchandise stores; florists; office supplies, stationery, and gift stores; used merchandise stores; pet and pet supplies stores; art dealers; manufactured home (i.e., mobile home) dealers; and tobacco stores). This industry also includes establishments primarily engaged in retailing a general line of new and used merchandise on an auction basis (except electronic auctions).

Illustrative Examples:

Art supply stores
General merchandise auction houses
Candle shops
Home security equipment stores
Cemetery memorial (e.g., headstones, markers, vaults) dealers
Hot tub stores
Collectors' items (e.g., autograph, coin, card, stamp) shops (except used rare items)
Swimming pool supply stores
Fireworks shops (permanent location)
Trophy (e.g., awards and plaques) shops
Flower shops, artificial or dried


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
454Nonstore RetailersIndustries in the Nonstore Retailers subsector retail merchandise using methods, such as the broadcasting of infomercials, the broadcasting and publishing of direct-response advertising, the publishing of paper and electronic catalogs, door-to-door solicitation, in-home demonstration, selling from portable stalls, and distribution through vending machines. Establishments in this subsector include mail-order houses, vending machine operators, home delivery sales, door-to-door sales, party plan sales, electronic shopping, and sales through portable stalls (e.g., street vendors, except food). Establishments engaged in the direct sale (i.e., nonstore) of products, such as home heating oil dealers and newspaper delivery service providers, are included in this subsector.
4541Electronic Shopping and Mail-Order HousesNULL
45411Electronic Shopping and Mail-Order HousesSee industry description for 454110.
454110Electronic Shopping and Mail-Order HousesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing all types of merchandise using nonstore means, such as catalogs, toll free telephone numbers, or electronic media, such as interactive television or the Internet. Included in this industry are establishments primarily engaged in retailing from catalog showrooms of mail-order houses.

Illustrative Examples:

Catalog (i.e., order-taking) offices of mail-order houses
Collectors' items, mail-order houses
Computer software, mail-order houses
Home shopping television orders
Internet auction sites, retail
Mail-order book clubs (not publishing)
Mail-order houses
Web retailers


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
4542Vending Machine OperatorsNULL
45421Vending Machine OperatorsSee industry description for 454210.
454210Vending Machine OperatorsThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing merchandise through vending machines that they service.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
4543Direct Selling EstablishmentsThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in nonstore retailing (except electronic, mail-order, or vending machine sales). These establishments typically go to the customers' location rather than the customer coming to them (e.g., door-to-door sales, home parties). Examples of establishments in this industry are home delivery newspaper routes; home delivery of heating oil, liquefied petroleum (LP) gas, and other fuels; locker meat provisioners; frozen food and freezer meal plan providers; coffee-break supplies providers; and bottled water or water softener services.
45431Fuel DealersSee industry description for 454310.
454310Fuel DealersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing heating oil, liquefied petroleum (LP) gas, and other fuels via direct selling.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
45439Other Direct Selling EstablishmentsSee industry description for 454390.
454390Other Direct Selling EstablishmentsThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing merchandise (except food for immediate consumption and fuel) via direct sale to the customer by means, such as in-house sales (i.e., party plan merchandising), truck or wagon sales, and portable stalls (i.e., street vendors).

Illustrative Examples:

Direct selling bottled water providers
Direct selling home delivery newspaper routes
Direct selling coffee-break supplies providers
Direct selling locker meat provisioners
Direct selling frozen food and freezer meal plan providers
Direct selling party plan merchandisers


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
48-49Transportation and Warehousing TThe Sector as a Whole

The Transportation and Warehousing sector includes industries providing transportation of passengers and cargo, warehousing and storage for goods, scenic and sightseeing transportation, and support activities related to modes of transportation. Establishments in these industries use transportation equipment or transportation related facilities as a productive asset. The type of equipment depends on the mode of transportation. The modes of transportation are air, rail, water, road, and pipeline.

The Transportation and Warehousing sector distinguishes three basic types of activities: subsectors for each mode of transportation, a subsector for warehousing and storage, and a subsector for establishments providing support activities for transportation. In addition, there are subsectors for establishments that provide passenger transportation for scenic and sightseeing purposes, postal services, and courier services.

A separate subsector for support activities is established in the sector because, first, support activities for transportation are inherently multimodal, such as freight transportation arrangement, or have multimodal aspects. Secondly, there are production process similarities among the support activity industries.

One of the support activities identified in the Support Activities for Transportation subsector is the routine repair and maintenance of transportation equipment (e.g., aircraft at an airport, railroad rolling stock at a railroad terminal, or ships at a harbor or port facility). Such establishments do not perform complete overhauling or rebuilding of transportation equipment (i.e., periodic restoration of transportation equipment to original design specifications) or transportation equipment conversion (i.e., major modification to systems). An establishment that primarily performs factory (or shipyard) overhauls, rebuilding, or conversions of aircraft, railroad rolling stock, or ships is classified in Subsector 336, Transportation Equipment Manufacturing, according to the type of equipment.

Many of the establishments in this sector often operate on networks, with physical facilities, labor forces, and equipment spread over an extensive geographic area.

Warehousing establishments in this sector are distinguished from merchant wholesaling in that the warehouse establishments do not sell the goods.

Excluded from this sector are establishments primarily engaged in providing travel agent services that support transportation and other establishments, such as hotels, businesses, and government agencies. These establishments are classified in Sector 56, Administrative and Support and Waste Management and Remediation Services. Also, establishments primarily engaged in providing rental and leasing of transportation equipment without operator are classified in Subsector 532, Rental and Leasing Services.
481Air Transportation TIndustries in the Air Transportation subsector provide air transportation of passengers and/or cargo using aircraft, such as airplanes and helicopters. The subsector distinguishes scheduled from nonscheduled air transportation. Scheduled air carriers fly regular routes on regular schedules and operate even if flights are only partially loaded. Nonscheduled carriers often operate during nonpeak time slots at busy airports. These establishments have more flexibility with respect to choice of airport, hours of operation, load factors, and similar operational characteristics. Nonscheduled carriers provide chartered air transportation of passengers, cargo, or specialty flying services. Specialty flying services establishments use general purpose aircraft to provide a variety of specialized flying services.

Scenic and sightseeing air transportation and air courier services are not included in this subsector but are included in Subsector 487, Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, and in Subsector 492, Couriers and Messengers, respectively. Although these activities may use aircraft, they are different from the activities included in air transportation. Air sightseeing does not usually involve place-to-place transportation; the passenger's flight (e.g., balloon ride, aerial sightseeing) typically starts and ends at the same location. Courier services (individual package or cargo delivery) include more than air transportation; road transportation is usually required to deliver the cargo to the intended recipient.
4811Scheduled Air Transportation TNULL
48111Scheduled Air Transportation TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing air transportation of passengers and/or cargo over regular routes and on regular schedules. Establishments in this industry operate flights even if partially loaded. Establishments primarily engaged in providing scheduled air transportation of mail on a contract basis are included in this industry.

Illustrative Examples:

Air commuter carriers, scheduled
Scheduled air passenger carriers
Scheduled air cargo carriers (except air couriers)
Scheduled helicopter passenger carriers


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
481111Scheduled Passenger Air TransportationThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing air transportation of passengers or passengers and freight over regular routes and on regular schedules. Establishments in this industry operate flights even if partially loaded. Scheduled air passenger carriers including commuter and helicopter carriers (except scenic and sightseeing) are included in this industry.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
481112Scheduled Freight Air TransportationThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing air transportation of cargo without transporting passengers over regular routes and on regular schedules. Establishments in this industry operate flights even if partially loaded. Establishments primarily engaged in providing scheduled air transportation of mail on a contract basis are included in this industry.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
4812Nonscheduled Air Transportation TNULL
48121Nonscheduled Air Transportation TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) providing air transportation of passengers and/or cargo with no regular routes and regular schedules or (2) providing specialty flying services with no regular routes and regular schedules using general purpose aircraft. These establishments have more flexibility with respect to choice of airports, hours of operation, load factors, and similar operational characteristics.

Illustrative Examples:

Air taxi services
Nonscheduled air freight transportation services
Aircraft charter services
Nonscheduled air passenger transportation services


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
481211Nonscheduled Chartered Passenger Air TransportationThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing air transportation of passengers or passengers and cargo with no regular routes and regular schedules.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
481212Nonscheduled Chartered Freight Air TransportationThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing air transportation of cargo without transporting passengers with no regular routes and regular schedules.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
481219Other Nonscheduled Air TransportationThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing air transportation with no regular routes and regular schedules (except nonscheduled chartered passenger and/or cargo air transportation). These establishments provide a variety of specialty air transportation or flying services based on individual customer needs using general purpose aircraft.

Illustrative Examples:

Aircraft charter services (i.e., general purpose aircraft used for a variety of specialty air and flying services)
Aviation clubs providing a variety of air transportation activities to the general public


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
482Rail Transportation TIndustries in the Rail Transportation subsector provide rail transportation of passengers and/or cargo using railroad rolling stock. The railroads in this subsector primarily either operate on networks, with physical facilities, labor force, and equipment spread over an extensive geographic area, or operate over a short distance on a local rail line.

Scenic and sightseeing rail transportation and street railroads, commuter rail, and rapid transit are not included in this subsector but are included in Subsector 487, Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, and Subsector 485, Transit and Ground Passenger Transportation, respectively. Although these activities use railroad rolling stock, they are different from the activities included in rail transportation. Sightseeing and scenic railroads do not usually involve place-to-place transportation; the passenger's trip typically starts and ends at the same location. Commuter railroads operate in a manner more consistent with local and urban transit and are often part of integrated transit systems.
4821Rail Transportation TNULL
48211Rail Transportation TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating railroads (except street railroads, commuter rail, urban rapid transit, and scenic and sightseeing trains). Line-haul railroads and short-line railroads are included in this industry.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
482111Line-Haul RailroadsThis U.S. industry comprises establishments known as line-haul railroads primarily engaged in operating railroads for the transport of passengers and/or cargo over a long distance within a rail network. These establishments provide for the intercity movement of trains between the terminals and stations on main and branch lines of a line-haul rail network (except for local switching services).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
482112Short Line RailroadsThis U.S. industry comprises establishments known as short-line railroads primarily engaged in operating railroads for the transport of cargo over a short distance on local rail lines not part of a rail network.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
483Water Transportation TIndustries in the Water Transportation subsector provide water transportation of passengers and cargo using watercraft, such as ships, barges, and boats.

The subsector is composed of two industry groups: (1) one for deep sea, coastal, and Great Lakes; and (2) one for inland water transportation. This split typically reflects the difference in equipment used.

Scenic and sightseeing water transportation services are not included in this subsector but are included in Subsector 487, Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation. Although these activities use watercraft, they are different from the activities included in water transportation. Water sightseeing does not usually involve place-to-place transportation; the passenger's trip starts and ends at the same location.
4831Deep Sea, Coastal, and Great Lakes Water Transportation TNULL
48311Deep Sea, Coastal, and Great Lakes Water Transportation TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing deep sea, coastal, Great Lakes, and St. Lawrence Seaway water transportation. Marine transportation establishments using the facilities of the St. Lawrence Seaway Authority Commission are considered to be using the Great Lakes Water Transportation System.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
483111Deep Sea Freight TransportationThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing deep sea transportation of cargo to or from foreign ports.

Cross-References.
483112Deep Sea Passenger TransportationThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing deep sea transportation of passengers to or from foreign ports.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
483113Coastal and Great Lakes Freight TransportationThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing water transportation of cargo in coastal waters, on the Great Lakes System, or deep seas between ports of the United States, Puerto Rico, and United States island possessions or protectorates. Marine transportation establishments using the facilities of the St. Lawrence Seaway Authority Commission are considered to be using the Great Lakes Water Transportation System. Establishments primarily engaged in providing coastal and/or Great Lakes barge transportation services are included in this industry.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
483114Coastal and Great Lakes Passenger TransportationThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing water transportation of passengers in coastal waters, the Great Lakes System, or deep seas between ports of the United States, Puerto Rico, and United States island possessions and protectorates. Marine transportation establishments using the facilities of the St. Lawrence Seaway Authority Commission are considered to be using the Great Lakes Water Transportation System.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
4832Inland Water Transportation TNULL
48321Inland Water Transportation TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing inland water transportation of passengers and/or cargo on lakes, rivers, or intracoastal waterways (except on the Great Lakes System).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
483211Inland Water Freight TransportationThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing inland water transportation of cargo on lakes, rivers, or intracoastal waterways (except on the Great Lakes System).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
483212Inland Water Passenger TransportationThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing inland water transportation of passengers on lakes, rivers, or intracoastal waterways (except on the Great Lakes System).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
484Truck Transportation TIndustries in the Truck Transportation subsector provide over-the-road transportation of cargo using motor vehicles, such as trucks and tractor trailers. The subsector is subdivided into general freight trucking and specialized freight trucking. This distinction reflects differences in equipment used, type of load carried, scheduling, terminal, and other networking services. General freight transportation establishments handle a wide variety of general commodities, generally palletized, and transported in a container or van trailer. Specialized freight transportation is the transportation of cargo that, because of size, weight, shape, or other inherent characteristics, requires specialized equipment for transportation.

Each of these industry groups is further subdivided based on distance traveled. Local trucking establishments primarily carry goods within a single metropolitan area and its adjacent nonurban areas. Long-distance trucking establishments carry goods between metropolitan areas.

The Specialized Freight Trucking industry group includes a separate industry for Used Household and Office Goods Moving. The household and office goods movers are separated because of the substantial network of establishments that has developed to deal with local and long-distance moving and the associated storage. In this area, the same establishment provides both local and long-distance services, while other specialized freight establishments generally limit their services to either local or long-distance hauling.
4841General Freight Trucking TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing general freight trucking. General freight trucking establishments handle a wide variety of commodities, generally palletized, and transported in a container or van trailer. The establishments of this industry group provide a combination of the following network activities: local pick-up, local sorting and terminal operations, line-haul, destination sorting and terminal operations, and local delivery.
48411General Freight Trucking, Local TSee industry description for 484110.
484110General Freight Trucking, LocalThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing local general freight trucking. General freight trucking establishments handle a wide variety of commodities, generally palletized and transported in a container or van trailer. Local general freight trucking establishments usually provide trucking within a metropolitan area which may cross state lines. Generally the trips are same-day return.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
48412General Freight Trucking, Long-Distance TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing long-distance general freight trucking. General freight trucking establishments handle a wide variety of commodities, generally palletized and transported in a container or van trailer. Long-distance general freight trucking establishments usually provide trucking between metropolitan areas which may cross North American country borders. Included in this industry are establishments operating as truckload (TL) or less than truckload (LTL) carriers.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
484121General Freight Trucking, Long-Distance, TruckloadThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing long-distance general freight truckload (TL) trucking. These long-distance general freight truckload carrier establishments provide full truck movement of freight from origin to destination. The shipment of freight on a truck is characterized as a full single load not combined with other shipments.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
484122General Freight Trucking, Long-Distance, Less Than TruckloadThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing long-distance, general freight, less than truckload (LTL) trucking. LTL carriage is characterized as multiple shipments combined onto a single truck for multiple deliveries within a network. These establishments are generally characterized by the following network activities: local pick-up, local sorting and terminal operations, line-haul, destination sorting and terminal operations, and local delivery.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
4842Specialized Freight Trucking TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing local or long-distance specialized freight trucking. The establishments of this industry are primarily engaged in the transportation of freight which, because of size, weight, shape, or other inherent characteristics, requires specialized equipment, such as flatbeds, tankers, or refrigerated trailers. This industry includes the transportation of used household, institutional, and commercial furniture and equipment.
48421Used Household and Office Goods Moving TSee industry description for 484210.
484210Used Household and Office Goods MovingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing local or long-distance trucking of used household, used institutional, or used commercial furniture and equipment. Incidental packing and storage activities are often provided by these establishments.
48422Specialized Freight (except Used Goods) Trucking, Local TSee industry description for 484220.
484220Specialized Freight (except Used Goods) Trucking, LocalThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing local, specialized trucking. Local trucking establishments provide trucking within a metropolitan area that may cross state lines. Generally the trips are same-day return.

Illustrative Examples:

Local agricultural products trucking
Local dump trucking (e.g., gravel, sand, top-soil)
Local boat hauling
Local livestock trucking
Local bulk liquids trucking


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
48423Specialized Freight (except Used Goods) Trucking, Long-Distance TSee industry description for 484230.
484230Specialized Freight (except Used Goods) Trucking, Long-DistanceThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing long-distance specialized trucking. These establishments provide trucking between metropolitan areas that may cross North American country borders.

Illustrative Examples:

Long-distance automobile carrier trucking
Long-distance refrigerated product trucking
Long-distance bulk liquid trucking
Long-distance trucking of waste
Long-distance hazardous material trucking


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
485Transit and Ground Passenger Transportation TIndustries in the Transit and Ground Passenger Transportation subsector include a variety of passenger transportation activities, such as urban transit systems; chartered bus, school bus, and interurban bus transportation; and taxis. These activities are distinguished based primarily on such production process factors as vehicle types, routes, and schedules.

In this subsector, the principal splits identify scheduled transportation as separate from nonscheduled transportation. The scheduled transportation industry groups are Urban Transit Systems, Interurban and Rural Bus Transportation, and School and Employee Bus Transportation. The nonscheduled industry groups are the Charter Bus Industry and Taxi and Limousine Service. The Other Transit and Ground Passenger Transportation industry group includes both scheduled and nonscheduled transportation.

Scenic and sightseeing ground transportation services are not included in this subsector but are included in Subsector 487, Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation. Sightseeing does not usually involve place-to-place transportation; the passenger's trip starts and ends at the same location.
4851Urban Transit Systems TNULL
48511Urban Transit Systems TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating local and suburban passenger transit systems over regular routes and on regular schedules within a metropolitan area and its adjacent nonurban areas. Such transportation systems involve the use of one or more modes of transport including light rail, commuter rail, subways, and streetcars, as well as buses and other motor vehicles.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
485111Mixed Mode Transit SystemsThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating local and suburban ground passenger transit systems using more than one mode of transport over regular routes and on regular schedules within a metropolitan area and its adjacent nonurban areas.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
485112Commuter Rail SystemsThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating local and suburban commuter rail systems over regular routes and on a regular schedule within a metropolitan area and its adjacent nonurban areas. Commuter rail is usually characterized by reduced fares, multiple ride and commutation tickets, and mostly used by passengers during the morning and evening peak periods.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
485113Bus and Other Motor Vehicle Transit SystemsThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating local and suburban passenger transportation systems using buses or other motor vehicles over regular routes and on regular schedules within a metropolitan area and its adjacent nonurban areas.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
485119Other Urban Transit SystemsThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating local and suburban ground passenger transit systems (except mixed mode transit systems, commuter rail systems, and buses and other motor vehicles) over regular routes and on regular schedules within a metropolitan area and its adjacent nonurban areas.

Illustrative Examples:

Commuter cable car systems (i.e., stand-alone)
Light rail systems (i.e., stand-alone)
Commuter tramway systems (i.e., stand-alone)
Monorail transit systems (i.e., stand-alone)
Commuter trolley systems (i.e., stand-alone)


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
4852Interurban and Rural Bus Transportation TNULL
48521Interurban and Rural Bus Transportation TSee industry description for 485210.
485210Interurban and Rural Bus TransportationThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing bus passenger transportation over regular routes and on regular schedules, principally outside a single metropolitan area and its adjacent nonurban areas.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
4853Taxi and Limousine Service TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing passenger transportation by automobile or van or providing an array of specialty and luxury passenger transportation services via limousine or luxury sedan generally on a reserved basis. These establishments do not operate over regular routes and on regular schedules.
48531Taxi Service TSee industry description for 485310.
485310Taxi ServiceThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing passenger transportation by automobile or van, not operated over regular routes and on regular schedules. Establishments of taxicab owner/operators, taxicab fleet operators, or taxicab organizations are included in this industry.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
48532Limousine Service TSee industry description for 485320.
485320Limousine ServiceThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing an array of specialty and luxury passenger transportation services via limousine or luxury sedan generally on a reserved basis. These establishments do not operate over regular routes and on regular schedules.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
4854School and Employee Bus Transportation TNULL
48541School and Employee Bus Transportation TSee industry description for 485410.
485410School and Employee Bus TransportationThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing buses and other motor vehicles to transport pupils to and from school or employees to and from work.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
4855Charter Bus Industry TNULL
48551Charter Bus Industry TSee industry description for 485510.
485510Charter Bus IndustryThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing buses for charter. These establishments provide bus services to meet customers' road transportation needs and generally do not operate over fixed routes and on regular schedules.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
4859Other Transit and Ground Passenger Transportation TNULL
48599Other Transit and Ground Passenger Transportation TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing other transit and ground passenger transportation (except urban transit systems, interurban and rural bus transportation, taxi services, school and employee bus transportation, charter bus services, and limousine services (except shuttle services)). Shuttle services (except employee bus) and special needs transportation services are included in this industry. Shuttle services establishments generally travel within a metropolitan area and its adjacent nonurban areas on regular routes, on regular schedules and provide services between hotels, airports, or other destination points. Establishments in the Special Needs Transportation industry provide passenger transportation to the infirm, elderly, or handicapped. These establishments may use specially equipped vehicles to provide passenger transportation.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
485991Special Needs TransportationThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing special needs transportation (except to and from school or work) to the infirm, elderly, or handicapped. These establishments may use specially equipped vehicles to provide passenger transportation.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
485999All Other Transit and Ground Passenger TransportationThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing ground passenger transportation (except urban transit systems; interurban and rural bus transportation, taxi and/or limousine services (except shuttle services), school and employee bus transportation, charter bus services, and special needs transportation). Establishments primarily engaged in operating shuttle services and vanpools are included in this industry. Shuttle services establishments generally provide travel on regular routes and on regular schedules between hotels, airports, or other destination points.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
486Pipeline Transportation TIndustries in the Pipeline Transportation subsector use transmission pipelines to transport products, such as crude oil, natural gas, refined petroleum products, and slurry. Industries are identified based on the products transported (i.e., pipeline transportation of crude oil, natural gas, refined petroleum products, and other products).

The Pipeline Transportation of Natural Gas industry includes the storage of natural gas because the storage is usually done by the pipeline establishment and because a pipeline is inherently a network in which all the nodes are interdependent.
4861Pipeline Transportation of Crude Oil TNULL
48611Pipeline Transportation of Crude Oil TSee industry description for 486110.
486110Pipeline Transportation of Crude OilThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the pipeline transportation of crude oil.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
4862Pipeline Transportation of Natural Gas TNULL
48621Pipeline Transportation of Natural Gas TSee industry description for 486210.
486210Pipeline Transportation of Natural GasThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the pipeline transportation of natural gas from processing plants to local distribution systems. This industry includes the storage of natural gas because the storage is usually done by the pipeline establishment and because a pipeline is inherently a network in which all the nodes are interdependent.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
4869Other Pipeline Transportation TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in the pipeline transportation of products (except crude oil and natural gas).
48691Pipeline Transportation of Refined Petroleum Products TSee industry description for 486910.
486910Pipeline Transportation of Refined Petroleum ProductsThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the pipeline transportation of refined petroleum products.
48699All Other Pipeline Transportation TSee industry description for 486990.
486990All Other Pipeline TransportationThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the pipeline transportation of products (except crude oil, natural gas, and refined petroleum products).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
487Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation TIndustries in the Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation subsector utilize transportation equipment to provide recreation and entertainment. These activities have a production process distinct from passenger transportation carried out for the purpose of other types of for-hire transportation. This process does not emphasize efficient transportation; in fact, such activities often use obsolete vehicles, such as steam trains, to provide some extra ambience. The activity is local in nature, usually involving a same-day return to the point of departure.

The Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation subsector is separated into three industries based on the mode: land, water, and other.

Activities that are recreational in nature and involve participation by the customer, such as white water rafting, are generally excluded from this subsector, unless they impose an impact on part of the transportation system. Charter boat fishing, for example, is included in the Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, Water industry.
4871Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, Land TNULL
48711Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, Land TSee industry description for 487110.
487110Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, LandThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing scenic and sightseeing transportation on land, such as sightseeing buses and trolleys, steam train excursions, and horse-drawn sightseeing rides. The services provided are usually local and involve same-day return to place of origin.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
4872Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, Water TNULL
48721Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, Water TSee industry description for 487210.
487210Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, WaterThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing scenic and sightseeing transportation on water. The services provided are usually local and involve same-day return to place of origin.

Illustrative Examples:

Airboat (i.e., swamp buggy) operation
Excursion boat operation
Charter fishing boat services
Harbor sightseeing tours
Dinner cruises


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
4879Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, Other TNULL
48799Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, Other TSee industry description for 487990.
487990Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, OtherThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing scenic and sightseeing transportation (except on land and water). The services provided are usually local and involve same-day return to place of departure.

Illustrative Examples:

Aerial cable cars, scenic and sightseeing operation
Helicopter rides, scenic and sightseeing operation
Aerial tramways, scenic and sightseeing operation
Hot air balloon rides, scenic and sightseeing operation
Glider excursions


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
488Support Activities for Transportation TIndustries in the Support Activities for Transportation subsector provide services which support transportation. These services may be provided to transportation carrier establishments or to the general public. This subsector includes a wide array of establishments, including air traffic control services, marine cargo handling, and motor vehicle towing.

The Support Activities for Transportation subsector includes services to transportation but is separated by type of mode serviced. The Support Activities for Rail Transportation industry includes services to the rail industry (e.g., railroad switching and terminal establishments).

Ship repair and maintenance not done in a shipyard are included in the Other Support Activities for Water Transportation industry. An example would be floating drydock services in a harbor.

Excluded from this subsector are establishments primarily engaged in providing factory conversion and overhaul of transportation equipment, which are classified in Subsector 336, Transportation Equipment Manufacturing. Also, establishments primarily engaged in providing rental and leasing of transportation equipment without operator are classified in Subsector 532, Rental and Leasing Services.
4881Support Activities for Air Transportation TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing services to the air transportation industry. These services include airport operation, servicing, repairing (except factory conversion and overhaul of aircraft), maintaining and storing aircraft, and ferrying aircraft.
48811Airport Operations TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) operating international, national, or civil airports or public flying fields or (2) supporting airport operations (except special food services contractors), such as rental of hangar space, air traffic control services, baggage handling services, and cargo handling services.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
488111Air Traffic ControlThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing air traffic control services to regulate the flow of air traffic.
488119Other Airport OperationsThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) operating international, national, or civil airports, or public flying fields or (2) supporting airport operations, such as rental of hangar space, and providing baggage handling and/or cargo handling services.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
48819Other Support Activities for Air Transportation TSee industry description for 488190.
488190Other Support Activities for Air TransportationThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing specialized services for air transportation (except air traffic control and other airport operations).

Illustrative Examples:

Aircraft maintenance and repair services (except factory conversions, overhauls, rebuilding)
Aircraft passenger screening security services
Aircraft testing services


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
4882Support Activities for Rail Transportation TNULL
48821Support Activities for Rail Transportation TSee industry description for 488210.
488210Support Activities for Rail TransportationThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing specialized services for railroad transportation including servicing, routine repairing (except factory conversion, overhaul, or rebuilding of rolling stock), and maintaining rail cars; loading and unloading rail cars; and operating independent terminals.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
4883Support Activities for Water Transportation TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in one of the following: (1) operating ports, harbors (including docking and pier facilities), or canals; (2) providing stevedoring and other marine cargo handling services (except warehousing); (3) providing navigational services to shipping; or (4) providing other services to water transportation.
48831Port and Harbor Operations TSee industry description for 488310.
488310Port and Harbor OperationsThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating ports, harbors (including docking and pier facilities), or canals.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
48832Marine Cargo Handling TSee industry description for 488320.
488320Marine Cargo HandlingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing stevedoring and other marine cargo handling services (except warehousing).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
48833Navigational Services to Shipping TSee industry description for 488330.
488330Navigational Services to ShippingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing navigational services to shipping. Marine salvage establishments are included in this industry.

Illustrative Examples:

Docking and undocking marine vessel services
Piloting services, water transportation
Marine vessel traffic reporting services
Tugboat services, harbor operation


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
48839Other Support Activities for Water Transportation TSee industry description for 488390.
488390Other Support Activities for Water TransportationThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing services to water transportation (except port and harbor operations; marine cargo handling services; and navigational services to shipping).

Illustrative Examples:

Floating drydocks (i.e., routine repair and maintenance of ships)
Ship scaling services
Marine cargo checkers and surveyors


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
4884Support Activities for Road Transportation TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) towing light or heavy motor vehicles, both local and long-distance, or (2) providing other services to road network users.
48841Motor Vehicle Towing TSee industry description for 488410.
488410Motor Vehicle TowingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in towing light or heavy motor vehicles, both local and long-distance. These establishments may provide incidental services, such as storage and emergency road repair services.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
48849Other Support Activities for Road Transportation TSee industry description for 488490.
488490Other Support Activities for Road TransportationThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing services (except motor vehicle towing) to road network users.

Illustrative Examples:

Bridge, tunnel, and highway operations
Pilot car services (i.e., wide load warning services)
Driving services (e.g., automobile, truck delivery)
Truck or weighing station operations


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
4885Freight Transportation Arrangement TNULL
48851Freight Transportation Arrangement TSee industry description for 488510.
488510Freight Transportation ArrangementThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in arranging transportation of freight between shippers and carriers. These establishments are usually known as freight forwarders, marine shipping agents, or customs brokers and offer a combination of services spanning transportation modes.

Cross-References.
4889Other Support Activities for Transportation TNULL
48899Other Support Activities for Transportation TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing support activities to transportation (except for air transportation; rail transportation; water transportation; road transportation; and freight transportation arrangement).

Illustrative Examples:

Arrangement of vanpools or carpools
Stockyards (i.e., not for fattening or selling livestock)
Independent pipeline terminal facilities


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
488991Packing and CratingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in packing, crating, and otherwise preparing goods for transportation.

Cross-References.
488999All Other Support Activities for TransportationThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing support activities to transportation (except for air transportation; rail transportation; water transportation; road transportation; freight transportation arrangement; and packing and crating).

Illustrative Examples:

Arrangement of vanpools or carpools
Stockyards (i.e., not for fattening or selling livestock)
Independent pipeline terminal facilities


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
491Postal Service TThe Postal Service subsector includes the activities of the National Post Office and its subcontractors operating under a universal service obligation to provide mail services, and using the infrastructure required to fulfill that obligation. These services include delivering letters and small parcels. These articles can be described as those that can be handled by one person without using special equipment. This allows the collection, pick-up, and delivery operations to be done with limited labor costs and minimal equipment. Sorting and transportation activities, where necessary, are generally mechanized. The restriction to small parcels distinguishes these establishments from those in the transportation industries. These establishments may also provide express delivery services using the infrastructure established for provision of basic mail services.

The traditional activity of the National Postal Service is described in this subsector. Subcontractors include rural post offices on contract to the Postal Service.

Bulk transportation of mail on contract to the Postal Service is not included here, because it is usually done by transportation establishments that carry other customers' cargo as well. Establishments that provide courier and express delivery services without operating under a universal service obligation are classified in Subsector 492, Couriers and Messengers.
4911Postal Service TNULL
49111Postal Service TSee industry description for 491110.
491110Postal ServiceThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing mail services under a universal service obligation. Mail services include the carriage of letters, printed matter, or mailable packages, including acceptance, collection, processing, and delivery. Due to the infrastructure requirements of providing mail service under a universal service obligation, postal service establishments often provide parcel and express delivery services in addition to the mail service. Establishments primarily engaged in performing one or more parts of the basic mail service, such as sorting, routing and/or delivery (except bulk transportation of mail) are included in this industry.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
492Couriers and Messengers TIndustries in the Couriers and Messengers subsector provide intercity, local, and/or international delivery of parcels and documents (including express delivery services) without operating under a universal service obligation. These articles may originate in the U.S. but be delivered to another country and can be described as those that may be handled by one person without using special equipment. This allows the collection, pick-up, and delivery operations to be done with limited labor costs and minimal equipment. Sorting and transportation activities, where necessary, are generally mechanized. The restriction to small parcels partly distinguishes these establishments from those in the transportation industries. The complete network of courier services establishments also distinguishes these transportation services from local messenger and delivery establishments in this subsector. This includes the establishments that perform intercity transportation as well as establishments that, under contract to them, perform local pick-up and delivery. Messengers, which usually deliver within a metropolitan or single urban area, may use bicycle, foot, small truck, or van.
4921Couriers and Express Delivery Services TNULL
49211Couriers and Express Delivery Services TSee industry description for 492110.
492110Couriers and Express Delivery ServicesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing air, surface, or combined mode courier and express delivery services of parcels, but not operating under a universal service obligation. These parcels can include goods and documents, but the express delivery services are not part of the normal mail service. These services are generally between metropolitan areas, urban centers, or international, but the establishments of this industry form a network that includes local pick-up and delivery to serve their customers' needs.

Illustrative Examples:

Air courier services, except establishments operating under a universal service obligation
Express delivery services, except establishments operating under a universal service obligation
Courier services (i.e., intercity network), except establishments operating under a universal service obligation


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
4922Local Messengers and Local Delivery TNULL
49221Local Messengers and Local Delivery TSee industry description for 492210.
492210Local Messengers and Local DeliveryThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing local messenger and delivery services of small items within a single metropolitan area or within an urban center. These establishments generally provide point-to-point pick-up and delivery and do not operate as part of an intercity courier network.

Illustrative Examples:

Alcoholic beverages delivery services
Letters, documents, or small parcels local delivery services
Grocery delivery services (i.e., independent service from grocery store)
Restaurant meals delivery services (i.e., independent service from restaurant)


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
493Warehousing and Storage TIndustries in the Warehousing and Storage subsector are primarily engaged in operating warehousing and storage facilities for general merchandise, refrigerated goods, and other warehouse products. These establishments provide facilities to store goods. They do not sell the goods they handle. These establishments take responsibility for storing the goods and keeping them secure. They may also provide a range of services, often referred to as logistics services, related to the distribution of goods. Logistics services can include labeling, breaking bulk, inventory control and management, light assembly, order entry and fulfillment, packaging, pick and pack, price marking and ticketing, and transportation arrangement. However, establishments in this industry group always provide warehousing or storage services in addition to any logistic services. Furthermore, the warehousing or storage of goods must be more than incidental to the performance of services, such as price marking.

Bonded warehousing and storage services and warehouses located in free trade zones are included in the industries of this subsector.
4931Warehousing and Storage TNULL
49311General Warehousing and Storage TSee industry description for 493110.
493110General Warehousing and StorageThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating merchandise warehousing and storage facilities. These establishments generally handle goods in containers, such as boxes, barrels, and/or drums, using equipment, such as forklifts, pallets, and racks. They are not specialized in handling bulk products of any particular type, size, or quantity of goods or products.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
49312Refrigerated Warehousing and Storage TSee industry description for 493120.
493120Refrigerated Warehousing and StorageThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating refrigerated warehousing and storage facilities. Establishments primarily engaged in the storage of furs for the trade are included in this industry. The services provided by these establishments include blast freezing, tempering, and modified atmosphere storage services.

Cross-References.
49313Farm Product Warehousing and Storage TSee industry description for 493130.
493130Farm Product Warehousing and StorageThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating bulk farm product warehousing and storage facilities (except refrigerated). Grain elevators primarily engaged in storage are included in this industry.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
49319Other Warehousing and Storage TSee industry description for 493190.
493190Other Warehousing and StorageThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating warehousing and storage facilities (except general merchandise, refrigerated, and farm product warehousing and storage).

Illustrative Examples:

Bulk petroleum storage
Lumber storage terminals
Document storage and warehousing
Whiskey warehousing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
51Information TThe Sector as a Whole

The Information sector comprises establishments engaged in the following processes: (a) producing and distributing information and cultural products, (b) providing the means to transmit or distribute these products as well as data or communications, and (c) processing data.

The main components of this sector are the publishing industries, including software publishing, and both traditional publishing and publishing exclusively on the Internet; the motion picture and sound recording industries; the broadcasting industries, including traditional broadcasting and broadcasting exclusively over the Internet; the telecommunications industries; and Web search portals, data processing industries, and the information services industries.

The expressions ''information age'' and ''global information economy'' are used with considerable frequency today. The general idea of an ''information economy'' includes both the notion of industries primarily producing, processing, and distributing information, as well as the idea that every industry is using available information and information technology to reorganize and make themselves more productive. For the purposes of NAICS, it is the transformation of information into a commodity that is produced and distributed by a number of growing industries that is at issue.

Cultural products are those that directly express attitudes, opinions, ideas, values, and artistic creativity; provide entertainment; or offer information and analysis concerning the past and present. Included in this definition are popular, mass-produced products as well as cultural products that normally have a more limited audience, such as poetry books, literary magazines, or classical records.

The unique characteristics of information and cultural products, and of the processes involved in their production and distribution, distinguish the Information sector from the goods-producing and service-producing sectors. Some of these characteristics are:

1. Unlike traditional goods, an ''information or cultural product,'' such as an on-line newspaper or a television program, does not necessarily have tangible qualities, nor is it necessarily associated with a particular form. A movie can be shown at a movie theater, on a television broadcast, through video-on-demand or rented at a local video store. A sound recording can be aired on radio, embedded in multimedia products, or sold at a record store.

2. Unlike traditional services, the delivery of these products does not require direct contact between the supplier and the consumer.

3. The value of these products to the consumer lies in their informational, educational, cultural, or entertainment content, not in the format in which they are distributed. Most of these products are protected from unlawful reproduction by copyright laws.

4. The intangible property aspect of information and cultural products makes the processes involved in their production and distribution very different from goods and services. Only those possessing the rights to these works are authorized to reproduce, alter, improve, and distribute them. Acquiring and using these rights often involves significant costs. In addition, technology is revolutionizing the distribution of these products. It is possible to distribute them in a physical form, via broadcast, or on-line.

5. Distributors of information and cultural products can easily add value to the products they distribute. For instance, broadcasters add advertising not contained in the original product. This capacity means that unlike traditional distributors, they derive revenue not from sale of the distributed product to the final consumer, but from those who pay for the privilege of adding information to the original product. Similarly, a directory and mailing list publisher can acquire the rights to thousands of previously published newspaper and periodical articles and add new value by providing search and software and organizing the information in a way that facilitates research and retrieval. These products often command a much higher price than the original information.

The distribution modes for information commodities may either eliminate the necessity for traditional manufacture, or reverse the conventional order of manufacture-distribute: A newspaper distributed on-line, for example, can be printed locally or by the final consumer. Similarly, packaged software is available mainly on-line. The NAICS Information sector is designed to make such economic changes transparent as they occur, or to facilitate designing surveys that will monitor the new phenomena and provide data to analyze the changes.

Many of the industries in the NAICS Information sector are engaged in producing products protected by copyright law, or in distributing them (other than distribution by traditional wholesale and retail methods). Examples are traditional publishing industries, software and directory and mailing list publishing industries, and film and sound industries. Broadcasting and telecommunications industries and information providers and processors are also included in the Information sector, because their technologies are so closely linked to other industries in the Information sector.
511Publishing Industries (except Internet) TIndustries in the Publishing Industries (except Internet) subsector group establishments engaged in the publishing of newspapers, magazines, other periodicals, and books, as well as directory and mailing list and software publishing. In general, these establishments, which are known as publishers, issue copies of works for which they usually possess copyright. Works may be in one or more formats including traditional print form, CD-ROM, or proprietary electronic networks. Publishers may publish works originally created by others for which they have obtained the rights and/or works that they have created in-house. Software publishing is included here because the activity, creation of a copyrighted product and bringing it to market, is equivalent to the creation process for other types of intellectual products.

In NAICS, publishing--the reporting, writing, editing, and other processes that are required to create an edition of a newspaper--is treated as a major economic activity in its own right, rather than as a subsidiary activity to a manufacturing activity, printing. Thus, publishing is classified in the Information sector; whereas, printing remains in the Manufacturing sector. In part, the NAICS classification reflects the fact that publishing increasingly takes place in establishments that are physically separate from the associated printing establishments. More crucially, the NAICS classification of book and newspaper publishing is intended to portray their roles in a modern economy, in which they do not resemble manufacturing activities.

Music publishers are not included in the Publishing Industries (except Internet) subsector, but are included in the Motion Picture and Sound Recording Industries subsector. Reproduction of prepackaged software is treated in NAICS as a manufacturing activity; on-line distribution of software products is in the Information sector; and custom design of software to client specifications is included in the Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services sector. These distinctions arise because of the different ways that software is created, reproduced, and distributed.

The Publishing Industries (except Internet) subsector includes establishments that publish software exclusively on the Internet but excludes establishments that publish other content exclusively on the Internet. Establishments publishing content other than software exclusively on the Internet are included in Subsector 519, Other Information Services. The Publishing Industries (except Internet) subsector also excludes products, such as manifold business forms and appointment books. Information is not the essential component of these items. Establishments producing these items are included in Subsector 323, Printing and Related Support Activities.
5111Newspaper, Periodical, Book, and Directory Publishers TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in publishing newspapers, magazines, other periodicals, books, directories and mailing lists, and other works, such as calendars, greeting cards, and maps. These works are characterized by the intellectual creativity required in their development and are usually protected by copyright. Publishers distribute or arrange for the distribution of these works.

Publishing establishments may create the works in-house, or contract for, purchase, or compile works that were originally created by others. These works may be published in one or more formats, such as print and/or electronic form, including proprietary electronic networks. Establishments in this industry may print, reproduce, or offer direct access to the works themselves or may arrange with others to carry out such functions.

Establishments that both print and publish may fill excess capacity with commercial or job printing. However, the publishing activity is still considered to be the primary activity of these establishments.
51111Newspaper Publishers TSee industry description for 511110.
511110Newspaper PublishersThis industry comprises establishments known as newspaper publishers. Establishments in this industry carry out operations necessary for producing and distributing newspapers, including gathering news; writing news columns, feature stories, and editorials; and selling and preparing advertisements. These establishments may publish newspapers in print or electronic form.

Cross-References.
51112Periodical Publishers TSee industry description for 511120.
511120Periodical PublishersThis industry comprises establishments known either as magazine publishers or periodical publishers. These establishments carry out the operations necessary for producing and distributing magazines and other periodicals, such as gathering, writing, and editing articles, and selling and preparing advertisements. These establishments may publish magazines and other periodicals in print or electronic form.

Illustrative Examples:

Comic book publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing)
Radio and television guide publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing)
Magazine publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing)
Scholarly journal publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing)
Newsletter publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing)
Trade journal publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing)


Cross-References.
51113Book Publishers TSee industry description for 511130.
511130Book PublishersThis industry comprises establishments known as book publishers. Establishments in this industry carry out design, editing, and marketing activities necessary for producing and distributing books. These establishments may publish books in print, electronic, or audio form.

Illustrative Examples:

Atlas publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing)
Religious book publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing)
Book publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing)
School textbook publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing)
Encyclopedia publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing)
Technical manual publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing)
Map publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing)
Travel guide book publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing)


Cross-References.
51114Directory and Mailing List Publishers TSee industry description for 511140.
511140Directory and Mailing List PublishersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in publishing directories, mailing lists, and collections or compilations of fact. The products are typically protected in their selection, arrangement and/or presentation. Examples are lists of mailing addresses, telephone directories, directories of businesses, collections or compilations of proprietary drugs or legal case results, compilations of public records, etc. These establishments may publish directories and mailing lists in print or electronic form.

Illustrative Examples:

Business directory publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing)
Mailing list publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing)
Directory publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing)
Telephone directory publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing)


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
51119Other Publishers TThis industry comprises establishments known as publishers (except newspaper, magazine, book, directory, mailing list, and music publishers). These establishments may publish works in print or electronic form.

Illustrative Examples:

Art print publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing)
Greeting card publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing)
Calendar publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing)


Cross-References.
511191Greeting Card PublishersThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in publishing greeting cards.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
511199All Other PublishersThis U.S. industry comprises establishments generally known as publishers (except newspaper, magazine, book, directory, database, music, and greeting card publishers). These establishments may publish works in print or electronic form.

Illustrative Examples:

Art print publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing)
Calendar publishers (except exclusive Internet publishing)


Cross-References.
5112Software Publishers TNULL
51121Software Publishers TSee industry description for 511210.
511210Software PublishersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in computer software publishing or publishing and reproduction. Establishments in this industry carry out operations necessary for producing and distributing computer software, such as designing, providing documentation, assisting in installation, and providing support services to software purchasers. These establishments may design, develop, and publish, or publish only. These establishments may publish and distribute software remotely through subscriptions and downloads.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
512Motion Picture and Sound Recording Industries TIndustries in the Motion Picture and Sound Recording Industries subsector group establishments involved in the production and distribution of motion pictures and sound recordings. While producers and distributors of motion pictures and sound recordings issue works for sale as traditional publishers do, the processes are sufficiently different to warrant placing establishments engaged in these activities in a separate subsector. Production is typically a complex process that involves several distinct types of establishments that are engaged in activities, such as contracting with performers, creating the film or sound content, and providing technical postproduction services. Film distribution is often to exhibitors, such as theaters and broadcasters, rather than through the wholesale and retail distribution chain. When the product is in a mass-produced form, NAICS treats production and distribution as the major economic activity as it does in the Publishing Industries (except Internet) subsector, rather than as a subsidiary activity to the manufacture of such products.

This subsector does not include establishments primarily engaged in the wholesale distribution of video and sound recordings, such as compact discs and audio tapes; these establishments are included in the Wholesale Trade sector. Reproduction of video and sound recordings that is carried out separately from establishments engaged in production and distribution is treated in NAICS as a manufacturing activity.
5121Motion Picture and Video Industries TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in the production and/or distribution of motion pictures, videos, television programs, or commercials; in the exhibition of motion pictures; or in the provision of postproduction and related services.
51211Motion Picture and Video Production TSee industry description for 512110.
512110Motion Picture and Video ProductionThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in producing, or producing and distributing motion pictures, videos, television programs, or television commercials.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
51212Motion Picture and Video Distribution TSee industry description for 512120.
512120Motion Picture and Video DistributionThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in acquiring distribution rights and distributing film and video productions to motion picture theaters, television networks and stations, and exhibitors.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
51213Motion Picture and Video Exhibition TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating motion picture theaters and/or exhibiting motion pictures or videos at film festivals, and so forth.
512131Motion Picture Theaters (except Drive-Ins)This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating motion picture theaters (except drive-ins) and/or exhibiting motion pictures or videos at film festivals, and so forth.
512132Drive-In Motion Picture TheatersThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating drive-in motion picture theaters.
51219Postproduction Services and Other Motion Picture and Video Industries TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing postproduction services and other services to the motion picture industry, including specialized motion picture or video postproduction services, such as editing, film/tape transfers, titling, subtitling, credits, closed captioning, and computer-produced graphics, animation and special effects, as well as developing and processing motion picture film.

Illustrative Examples:

Motion picture film laboratories
Stock footage film libraries
Postproduction facilities
Teleproduction services


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
512191Teleproduction and Other Postproduction ServicesThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing specialized motion picture or video postproduction services, such as editing, film/tape transfers, subtitling, credits, closed captioning, and animation and special effects.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
512199Other Motion Picture and Video IndustriesThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing motion picture and video services (except motion picture and video production, distribution, exhibition, and teleproduction and other postproduction services).

Illustrative Examples:

Motion picture film laboratories
Stock footage film libraries
Film preservation services


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
5122Sound Recording Industries TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in producing and distributing musical recordings, publishing music, or providing sound recording and related services.
51223Music Publishers TSee industry description for 512230.
512230Music PublishersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in acquiring and registering copyrights for musical compositions in accordance with law and promoting and authorizing the use of these compositions in recordings, radio, television, motion pictures, live performances, print, or other media. Establishments in this industry represent the interests of the songwriter or other owners of musical compositions to produce revenues from the use of such works, generally through licensing agreements. These establishments may own the copyright or act as administrator of the music copyrights on behalf of copyright owners. Publishers of music books and sheet music are included in this industry.

Cross-References.
51224Sound Recording Studios TSee industry description for 512240.
512240Sound Recording StudiosThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing the facilities and technical expertise for sound recording in a studio. This industry includes establishments that provide audio production and postproduction services to produce master recordings. These establishments may provide audio services for film, television, and video productions.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
51225Record Production and Distribution TSee industry description for 512250.
512250Record Production and DistributionThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in record production (e.g., tapes, CDs) and/or releasing, promoting, and distributing sound recordings to wholesalers, retailers, or directly to the public. These establishments contract with artists, arrange and finance the production of original master recordings, and/or produce master recordings themselves, such as audio tapes/cassettes and compact discs. Establishments in this industry hold the copyright to the master recording, or obtain reproduction and distribution rights to master recordings produced by others, and derive most of their revenues from the sales, leasing, licensing, or distribution of master recordings.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
51229Other Sound Recording Industries TSee industry description for 512290.
512290Other Sound Recording IndustriesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing sound recording services (except record production, distribution, music publishing, and sound recording in a studio). Establishments in this industry provide services, such as the audio recording of meetings and conferences.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
515Broadcasting (except Internet) TIndustries in the Broadcasting (except Internet) subsector include establishments that create content or acquire the right to distribute content and subsequently broadcast the content. The industry groups (Radio and Television Broadcasting and Cable and Other Subscription Programming) are based on differences in the methods of communication and the nature of services provided. The Radio and Television Broadcasting industry group includes establishments that operate broadcasting studios and facilities for over-the-air or satellite delivery of radio and television programs of entertainment, news, talk, and the like. These establishments are often engaged in the production and purchase of programs and generating revenues from the sale of air time to advertisers and from donations, subsidies, and/or the sale of programs. The Cable and Other Subscription Programming industry group includes establishments operating studios and facilities for the broadcasting of programs that are typically narrowcast in nature (limited format, such as news, sports, education, and youth-oriented programming) on a subscription or fee basis.

The distribution of cable and other subscription programming is included in Subsector 517, Telecommunications. Establishments that broadcast exclusively on the Internet are included in Subsector 519, Other Information Services.
5151Radio and Television Broadcasting TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating broadcast studios and facilities for over-the-air or satellite delivery of radio and television programs. These establishments are often engaged in the production or purchase of programs or generate revenues from the sale of air time to advertisers, from donations and subsidies, or from the sale of programs.
51511Radio Broadcasting TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in broadcasting audio signals. These establishments operate radio broadcasting studios and facilities for the transmission of aural programming to the public, to affiliates, or to subscribers. The radio programs may include entertainment, news, talk shows, business data, or religious services.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
515111Radio NetworksThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in assembling and transmitting aural programming to their affiliates or subscribers via over-the-air broadcasts, cable, or satellite. The programming covers a wide variety of material, such as news services, religious programming, weather, sports, or music.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
515112Radio StationsThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in broadcasting aural programs by radio to the public. Programming may originate in their own studio, from an affiliated network, or from external sources.
51512Television Broadcasting TSee industry description for 515120.
515120Television BroadcastingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in broadcasting images together with sound. These establishments operate television broadcasting studios and facilities for the programming and transmission of programs to the public. These establishments also produce or transmit visual programming to affiliated broadcast television stations, which in turn broadcast the programs to the public on a predetermined schedule. Programming may originate in their own studio, from an affiliated network, or from external sources.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
5152Cable and Other Subscription Programming TNULL
51521Cable and Other Subscription Programming TSee industry description for 515210.
515210Cable and Other Subscription ProgrammingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating studios and facilities for the broadcasting of programs on a subscription or fee basis. The broadcast programming is typically narrowcast in nature (e.g., limited format, such as news, sports, education, or youth-oriented). These establishments produce programming in their own facilities or acquire programming from external sources. The programming material is usually delivered to a third party, such as cable systems or direct-to-home satellite systems, for transmission to viewers.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
517Telecommunications TIndustries in the Telecommunications subsector group establishments that provide telecommunications and the services related to that activity (e.g., telephony, including Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP); cable and satellite television distribution services; Internet access; telecommunications reselling services). The Telecommunications subsector is primarily engaged in operating and/or providing access to facilities for the transmission of voice, data, text, sound, and video. Transmission facilities may be based on a single technology or a combination of technologies. Establishments in the Telecommunications subsector are grouped into three industry groups. The first two are comprised of establishments that operate transmission facilities and infrastructure that they own and/or lease, and provide telecommunications services using those facilities. The distinction between the first two industry groups is the type of infrastructure operated (i.e., wired and/or wireless or satellite). The third industry group is comprised of establishments that provide support activities, telecommunications reselling services, or many of the same services provided by establishments in the first two industry groups, but do not operate as telecommunications carriers. Establishments primarily engaged as independent contractors in the installation and maintenance of broadcasting and telecommunications systems are classified in Sector 23, Construction. Establishments known as Internet cafes, primarily engaged in offering limited Internet connectivity in combination with other services such as facsimile services, training, rental of on-site personal computers, game rooms, or food services are classified in Subsector 561, Administrative and Support Services, or Subsector 722, Food Services and Drinking Places, depending on the primary activity.
5173Wired and Wireless Telecommunications Carriers TNULL
51731Wired and Wireless Telecommunications Carriers TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating, maintaining, and/or providing access to switching and transmission facilities and infrastructure that they own and/or lease for the transmission of voice, data, text, sound, and video using wired and wireless telecommunications networks. Transmission facilities may be based on a single technology or a combination of technologies. By exception, establishments providing satellite television distribution services using facilities and infrastructure that they operate are included in this industry.

Illustrative Examples:

Broadband Internet service providers, wired (e.g., cable, DSL)
Cable television distribution services
Cellular telephone services
Direct-to-home satellite system (DTH) services
Satellite television distribution systems
Telecommunications carriers, wired
VoIP service providers, using own operated wired telecommunications infrastructure
Wireless Internet service providers, except satellite
Wireless telecommunications carriers, except satellite
Wireless telephone communications carriers, except satellite


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
517311Wired Telecommunications CarriersThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating and/or providing access to transmission facilities and infrastructure that they own and/or lease for the transmission of voice, data, text, sound, and video using wired telecommunications networks. Transmission facilities may be based on a single technology or a combination of technologies. Establishments in this industry use the wired telecommunications network facilities that they operate to provide a variety of services, such as wired telephony services, including VoIP services; wired (cable) audio and video programming distribution; and wired broadband Internet services. By exception, establishments providing satellite television distribution services using facilities and infrastructure that they operate are included in this industry.

Illustrative Examples:

Broadband Internet service providers, wired (e.g., cable, DSL)
Cable television distribution services
Closed-circuit television (CCTV) services
Direct-to-home satellite system (DTH) services
Local telephone carriers, wired
Long-distance telephone carriers, wired
Multichannel multipoint distribution services (MMDS)
Satellite television distribution systems
Telecommunications carriers, wired
VoIP service providers, using own operated wired telecommunications infrastructure


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
517312Wireless Telecommunications Carriers (except Satellite)This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating and maintaining switching and transmission facilities to provide communications via the airwaves. Establishments in this industry have spectrum licenses and provide services using that spectrum, such as cellular phone services, paging services, wireless Internet access, and wireless video services.

Illustrative Examples:

Cellular telephone services
Paging services, except satellite
Wireless Internet service providers, except satellite
Wireless telephone communications carriers, except satellite


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
5174Satellite Telecommunications TNULL
51741Satellite Telecommunications TSee industry description for 517410.
517410Satellite TelecommunicationsThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing telecommunications services to other establishments in the telecommunications and broadcasting industries by forwarding and receiving communications signals via a system of satellites or reselling satellite telecommunications.

Cross-References.
5179Other Telecommunications TNULL
51791Other Telecommunications TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) purchasing access and network capacity from owners and operators of telecommunications networks and reselling wired and wireless telecommunications services (except satellite) to businesses and households; (2) providing specialized telecommunications services, such as satellite tracking, communications telemetry, and radar station operation; (3) providing satellite terminal stations and associated facilities connected with one or more terrestrial systems and capable of transmitting telecommunications to, and receiving telecommunications from, satellite systems; or (4) providing Internet access services or Voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) services via client-supplied telecommunications connections. Establishments in this industry do not operate as telecommunications carriers. Mobile virtual network operators (MVNOs) are included in this industry.
517911Telecommunications ResellersThis U.S. industry comprises establishments engaged in purchasing access and network capacity from owners and operators of telecommunications networks and reselling wired and wireless telecommunications services (except satellite) to businesses and households. Establishments in this industry resell telecommunications; they do not operate transmission facilities and infrastructure. Mobile virtual network operators (MVNOs) are included in this industry.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
517919All Other TelecommunicationsThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing specialized telecommunications services, such as satellite tracking, communications telemetry, and radar station operation. This industry also includes establishments primarily engaged in providing satellite terminal stations and associated facilities connected with one or more terrestrial systems and capable of transmitting telecommunications to, and receiving telecommunications from, satellite systems. Establishments providing Internet services or Voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) services via client-supplied telecommunications connections are also included in this industry.

Illustrative Examples:

Dial-up Internet service providers
VoIP service providers, using client-supplied telecommunications connections
Internet service providers using client-supplied telecommunications connections (e.g., dial-up ISPs)
Satellite tracking stations


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
518Data Processing, Hosting, and Related Services TIndustries in the Data Processing, Hosting, and Related Services subsector group establishments that provide the infrastructure for hosting and/or data processing services.
5182Data Processing, Hosting, and Related Services TNULL
51821Data Processing, Hosting, and Related Services TSee industry description for 518210.
518210Data Processing, Hosting, and Related ServicesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing infrastructure for hosting or data processing services. These establishments may provide specialized hosting activities, such as Web hosting, streaming services, or application hosting (except software publishing), or they may provide general time-share mainframe facilities to clients. Data processing establishments provide complete processing and specialized reports from data supplied by clients or provide automated data processing and data entry services.

Illustrative Examples:

Application hosting
Optical scanning services
Web hosting
Computer data storage services
Video and audio streaming services
Computer input preparation services
Microfilm imaging services
Computer time rental


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
519Other Information Services TIndustries in the Other Information Services subsector group establishments supplying information, storing and providing access to information, searching and retrieving information, operating Web sites that use search engines to allow for searching information on the Internet, or publishing and/or broadcasting content exclusively on the Internet. The main components of the subsector are news syndicates, libraries, archives, exclusive Internet publishing and/or broadcasting, and Web search portals.
5191Other Information Services TNULL
51911News Syndicates TSee industry description for 519110.
519110News SyndicatesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in supplying information, such as news reports, articles, pictures, and features, to the news media.

Cross-References.
51912Libraries and Archives TSee industry description for 519120.
519120Libraries and ArchivesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing library or archive services. These establishments are engaged in maintaining collections of documents (e.g., books, journals, newspapers, and music) and facilitating the use of such documents (recorded information regardless of its physical form and characteristics) as required to meet the informational, research, educational, or recreational needs of their user. These establishments may also acquire, research, store, preserve, and generally make accessible to the public historical documents, photographs, maps, audio material, audiovisual material, and other archival material of historical interest. All or portions of these collections may be accessible electronically.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
51913Internet Publishing and Broadcasting and Web Search Portals TSee industry description for 519130.
519130Internet Publishing and Broadcasting and Web Search PortalsThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) publishing and/or broadcasting content on the Internet exclusively or (2) operating Web sites that use a search engine to generate and maintain extensive databases of Internet addresses and content in an easily searchable format (and known as Web search portals). The publishing and broadcasting establishments in this industry do not provide traditional (non-Internet) versions of the content that they publish or broadcast. They provide textual, audio, and/or video content of general or specific interest on the Internet exclusively. Establishments known as Web search portals often provide additional Internet services, such as email, connections to other Web sites, auctions, news, and other limited content, and serve as a home base for Internet users.

Illustrative Examples:

Internet book publishers
Internet sports sites
Internet entertainment sites
Internet video broadcast sites
Internet news publishers
Internet periodical publishers
Internet radio stations
Internet search portals
Web search portals
Internet search Web sites
Internet social networking sites


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
51919All Other Information Services TSee industry description for 519190.
519190All Other Information ServicesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing other information services (except news syndicates, libraries, archives, Internet publishing and broadcasting, and Web search portals).

Illustrative Examples:

News clipping services
Telephone-based recorded information services
Stock photo agencies


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
52Finance and Insurance TThe Sector as a Whole

The Finance and Insurance sector comprises establishments primarily engaged in financial transactions (transactions involving the creation, liquidation, or change in ownership of financial assets) and/or in facilitating financial transactions. Three principal types of activities are identified:

1. Raising funds by taking deposits and/or issuing securities and, in the process, incurring liabilities. Establishments engaged in this activity use raised funds to acquire financial assets by making loans and/or purchasing securities. Putting themselves at risk, they channel funds from lenders to borrowers and transform or repackage the funds with respect to maturity, scale, and risk. This activity is known as financial intermediation.

2. Pooling of risk by underwriting insurance and annuities. Establishments engaged in this activity collect fees, insurance premiums, or annuity considerations; build up reserves; invest those reserves; and make contractual payments. Fees are based on the expected incidence of the insured risk and the expected return on investment.

3. Providing specialized services facilitating or supporting financial intermediation, insurance, and employee benefit programs.

In addition, monetary authorities charged with monetary control are included in this sector.

The subsectors, industry groups, and industries within the Finance and Insurance sector are defined on the basis of their unique production processes. As with all industries, the production processes are distinguished by their use of specialized human resources and specialized physical capital. In addition, the way in which these establishments acquire and allocate financial capital, their source of funds, and the use of those funds provides a third basis for distinguishing characteristics of the production process. For instance, the production process in raising funds through deposit-taking is different from the process of raising funds in bond or money markets. The process of making loans to individuals also requires different production processes than does the creation of investment pools or the underwriting of securities.

Most of the Finance and Insurance subsectors contain one or more industry groups of (1) intermediaries with similar patterns of raising and using funds and (2) establishments engaged in activities that facilitate, or are otherwise related to, that type of financial or insurance intermediation. Industries within this sector are defined in terms of activities for which a production process can be specified, and many of these activities are not exclusive to a particular type of financial institution. To deal with the varied activities taking place within existing financial institutions, the approach is to split these institutions into components performing specialized services. This requires defining the units engaged in providing those services and developing procedures that allow for their delineation. These units are the equivalents for finance and insurance of the establishments defined for other industries.

The output of many financial services, as well as the inputs and the processes by which they are combined, cannot be observed at a single location and can only be defined at a higher level of the organizational structure of the enterprise. Additionally, a number of independent activities that represent separate and distinct production processes may take place at a single location belonging to a multilocation financial firm. Activities are more likely to be homogeneous with respect to production characteristics than are locations, at least in financial services. The classification defines activities broadly enough that it can be used both by those classifying by location and by those employing a more top-down approach to the delineation of the establishment.

Establishments engaged in activities that facilitate, or are otherwise related to, the various types of intermediation are included in multiple subsectors, rather than in a separate subsector dedicated to services alone, because these services are performed by intermediaries, as well as by specialist establishments, and the extent to which the activity of the intermediaries can be separately identified is not clear.

Financial industries are extensive users of electronic means for facilitating the verification of financial balances, authorizing transactions, transferring funds to and from transactors' accounts, notifying banks (or credit card issuers) of the individual transactions, and providing daily summaries. Since these transaction processing activities are integral to the production of finance and insurance services, establishments that principally provide a financial transaction processing service are classified in this sector, rather than in the data processing industry in the Information sector.

Legal entities that hold portfolios of assets on behalf of others are significant and data on them are required for a variety of purposes. Thus for NAICS, these funds, trusts, and other financial vehicles are the fifth subsector of the Finance and Insurance sector. These entities earn interest, dividends, and other property income, but have little or no employment and no revenue from the sale of services. Separate establishments and employees devoted to the management of funds are classified in Industry Group 5239, Other Financial Investment Activities.
521Monetary Authorities-Central Bank TThe Monetary Authorities-Central Bank subsector groups establishments that engage in performing central banking functions, such as issuing currency, managing the Nation's money supply and international reserves, holding deposits that represent the reserves of other banks and other central banks, and acting as a fiscal agent for the central government.
5211Monetary Authorities-Central Bank TNULL
52111Monetary Authorities-Central Bank TSee industry description for 521110.
521110Monetary Authorities-Central BankThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in performing central banking functions, such as issuing currency, managing the Nation's money supply and international reserves, holding deposits that represent the reserves of other banks and other central banks, and acting as a fiscal agent for the central government.

Cross-References.
522Credit Intermediation and Related Activities TIndustries in the Credit Intermediation and Related Activities subsector group establishments that (1) lend funds raised from depositors; (2) lend funds raised from credit market borrowing; or (3) facilitate the lending of funds or issuance of credit by engaging in such activities as mortgage and loan brokerage, clearinghouse and reserve services, and check cashing services.
5221Depository Credit IntermediationThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in accepting deposits (or share deposits) and in lending funds from these deposits. Within this group, industries are defined on the basis of differences in the types of deposit liabilities assumed and in the nature of the credit extended.
52211Commercial BankingSee industry description for 522110.
522110Commercial BankingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in accepting demand and other deposits and making commercial, industrial, and consumer loans. Commercial banks and branches of foreign banks are included in this industry.

Cross-References.
52212Savings InstitutionsSee industry description for 522120.
522120Savings InstitutionsThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in accepting time deposits, making mortgage and real estate loans, and investing in high-grade securities. Savings and loan associations and savings banks are included in this industry.

Cross-References.
52213Credit UnionsSee industry description for 522130.
522130Credit UnionsThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in accepting members' share deposits in cooperatives that are organized to offer consumer loans to their members.
52219Other Depository Credit IntermediationSee industry description for 522190.
522190Other Depository Credit IntermediationThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in accepting deposits and lending funds (except commercial banking, savings institutions, and credit unions). Establishments known as industrial banks or Morris Plans and primarily engaged in accepting deposits, and private banks (i.e., unincorporated banks) are included in this industry.

Cross-References.
5222Nondepository Credit IntermediationThis industry group comprises establishments, both public (government-sponsored enterprises) and private, primarily engaged in extending credit or lending funds raised by credit market borrowing, such as issuing commercial paper or other debt instruments or by borrowing from other financial intermediaries. Within this group, industries are defined on the basis of the type of credit being extended.
52221Credit Card IssuingSee industry description for 522210.
522210Credit Card IssuingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing credit by issuing credit cards. Credit card issuance provides the funds required to purchase goods and services in return for payment of the full balance or payments on an installment basis. Credit card banks are included in this industry.

Cross-References.
52222Sales FinancingSee industry description for 522220.
522220Sales FinancingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in sales financing or sales financing in combination with leasing. Sales financing establishments are primarily engaged in lending money for the purpose of providing collateralized goods through a contractual installment sales agreement, either directly from or through arrangements with dealers.

Cross-References.
52229Other Nondepository Credit IntermediationThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in making cash loans or extending credit through credit instruments (except credit cards and sales finance agreements).

Illustrative Examples:

Consumer finance companies (i.e., unsecured cash loans)
Mortgage companies
International trade financing
Secondary market financing


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
522291Consumer LendingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in making unsecured cash loans to consumers.

Illustrative Examples:

Finance companies (i.e., unsecured cash loans)
Personal credit institutions (i.e., unsecured cash loans)
Loan companies (i.e., consumer, personal, student, small)
Student loan companies


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
522292Real Estate CreditThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in lending funds with real estate as collateral.

Illustrative Examples:

Home equity credit lending
Mortgage companies
Mortgage banking (i.e., nondepository mortgage lending)


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
522293International Trade FinancingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing one or more of the following: (1) working capital funds to U.S. exporters; (2) lending funds to foreign buyers of U.S. goods; and/or (3) lending funds to domestic buyers of imported goods.

Illustrative Examples:

Agreement corporations (i.e., international trade financing)
Export-Import banks
Edge Act corporations (i.e., international trade financing)
Trade banks (i.e., international trade financing)


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
522294Secondary Market FinancingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in buying, pooling, and repackaging loans for sale to others on the secondary market.

Illustrative Examples:

Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (FHLMC)
Government National Mortgage Association (GNMA)
Federal National Mortgage Association (FNMA)
Student Loan Marketing Association (SLMA)
522298All Other Nondepository Credit IntermediationThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing nondepository credit (except credit card issuing, sales financing, consumer lending, real estate credit, international trade financing, and secondary market financing). Examples of types of lending in this industry are short-term inventory credit, agricultural lending (except real estate and sales financing), and consumer cash lending secured by personal property.

Illustrative Examples:

Commodity Credit Corporation
Morris Plans (i.e., known as), nondepository
Factoring accounts receivable
Pawnshops
Industrial banks (i.e., known as), nondepository


Cross-References.
5223Activities Related to Credit IntermediationThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in facilitating credit intermediation by performing activities, such as arranging loans by bringing borrowers and lenders together and clearing checks and credit card transactions.
52231Mortgage and Nonmortgage Loan BrokersSee industry description for 522310.
522310Mortgage and Nonmortgage Loan BrokersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in arranging loans by bringing borrowers and lenders together on a commission or fee basis.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
52232Financial Transactions Processing, Reserve, and Clearinghouse ActivitiesSee industry description for 522320.
522320Financial Transactions Processing, Reserve, and Clearinghouse ActivitiesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing one or more of the following: (1) financial transaction processing (except central bank); (2) reserve and liquidity services (except central bank); and/or (3) check or other financial instrument clearinghouse services (except central bank).

Illustrative Examples:

Automated clearinghouses, bank or check (except central bank)
Credit card processing services
Check clearing services (except central bank)
Electronic funds transfer services


Cross-References.
52239Other Activities Related to Credit IntermediationSee industry description for 522390.
522390Other Activities Related to Credit IntermediationThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in facilitating credit intermediation (except mortgage and loan brokerage; and financial transactions processing, reserve, and clearinghouse activities).

Illustrative Examples:

Check cashing services
Money order issuance services
Loan servicing
Travelers' check issuance services
Money transmission services
Payday lending services


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
523Securities, Commodity Contracts, and Other Financial Investments and Related Activities TIndustries in the Securities, Commodity Contracts, and Other Financial Investments and Related Activities subsector group establishments that are primarily engaged in one of the following: (1) underwriting securities issues and/or making markets for securities and commodities; (2) acting as agents (i.e., brokers) between buyers and sellers of securities and commodities; (3) providing securities and commodity exchange services; and (4) providing other services, such as managing portfolios of assets; providing investment advice; and trust, fiduciary, and custody services.
5231Securities and Commodity Contracts Intermediation and Brokerage TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in putting capital at risk in the process of underwriting securities issues or in making markets for securities and commodities; and those acting as agents and/or brokers between buyers and sellers of securities and commodities, usually charging a commission.
52311Investment Banking and Securities DealingSee industry description for 523110.
523110Investment Banking and Securities DealingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in underwriting, originating, and/or maintaining markets for issues of securities. Investment bankers act as principals (i.e., investors who buy or sell on their own account) in firm commitment transactions or act as agents in best effort and standby commitments. This industry also includes establishments acting as principals in buying or selling securities generally on a spread basis, such as securities dealers or stock option dealers.

Illustrative Examples:

Bond dealing (i.e., acting as a principal in dealing securities to investors)
Stock options dealing
Securities underwriting


Cross-References.
52312Securities BrokerageSee industry description for 523120.
523120Securities BrokerageThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in acting as agents (i.e., brokers) between buyers and sellers in buying or selling securities on a commission or transaction fee basis.

Illustrative Examples:

Mutual fund agencies (i.e., brokerages)
Stock brokerages
Securities brokerages


Cross-References.
52313Commodity Contracts DealingSee industry description for 523130.
523130Commodity Contracts DealingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in acting as principals (i.e., investors who buy or sell for their own account) in buying or selling spot or futures commodity contracts or options, such as precious metals, foreign currency, oil, or agricultural products, generally on a spread basis.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
52314Commodity Contracts BrokerageSee industry description for 523140.
523140Commodity Contracts BrokerageThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in acting as agents (i.e., brokers) in buying or selling spot or futures commodity contracts or options on a commission or transaction fee basis.

Illustrative Examples:

Commodity contracts brokerages
Financial futures brokerages
Commodity futures brokerages


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
5232Securities and Commodity Exchanges TNULL
52321Securities and Commodity Exchanges TSee industry description for 523210.
523210Securities and Commodity ExchangesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in furnishing physical or electronic marketplaces for the purpose of facilitating the buying and selling of stocks, stock options, bonds, or commodity contracts.

Cross-References.
5239Other Financial Investment Activities TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in one of the following: (1) acting as principals in buying or selling financial contracts (except investment bankers, securities dealers, and commodity contracts dealers); (2) acting as agents (i.e., brokers) (except securities brokerages and commodity contracts brokerages) in buying or selling financial contracts; or (3) providing other investment services (except securities and commodity exchanges), such as portfolio management; investment advice; and trust, fiduciary, and custody services.
52391Miscellaneous IntermediationSee industry description for 523910.
523910Miscellaneous IntermediationThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in acting as principals (except investment bankers, securities dealers, and commodity contracts dealers) in buying or selling financial contracts generally on a spread basis. Principals are investors that buy or sell for their own account.

Illustrative Examples:

Investment clubs
Tax liens dealing (i.e., acting as a principal in dealing tax liens to investors)
Mineral royalties or leases dealing (i.e., acting as a principal in dealing royalties or leases to investors)
Venture capital companies


Cross-References.
52392Portfolio ManagementSee industry description for 523920.
523920Portfolio ManagementThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in managing the portfolio assets (i.e., funds) of others on a fee or commission basis. Establishments in this industry have the authority to make investment decisions, and they derive fees based on the size and/or overall performance of the portfolio.

Illustrative Examples:

Managing trusts
Pension fund managing
Mutual fund managing
Portfolio fund managing


Cross-References.
52393Investment AdviceSee industry description for 523930.
523930Investment AdviceThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing customized investment advice to clients on a fee basis, but do not have the authority to execute trades. Primary activities performed by establishments in this industry are providing financial planning advice and investment counseling to meet the goals and needs of specific clients.

Illustrative Examples:

Financial investment advice services, customized, fees paid by client
Investment advisory services, customized, fees paid by client
Financial planning services, customized, fees paid by client


Cross-References.
52399All Other Financial Investment ActivitiesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in acting as agents or brokers (except securities brokerages and commodity contracts brokerages) in buying and selling financial contracts and those providing financial investment services (except securities and commodity exchanges, portfolio management, and investment advice).

Illustrative Examples:

Bank trust offices
Fiduciary agencies (except real estate)
Escrow agencies (except real estate)
Stock quotation services


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
523991Trust, Fiduciary, and Custody ActivitiesThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing trust, fiduciary, and custody services to others, as instructed, on a fee or contract basis, such as bank trust offices and escrow agencies (except real estate).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
523999Miscellaneous Financial Investment ActivitiesThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in acting as agents and/or brokers (except securities brokerages and commodity contracts brokerages) in buying or selling financial contracts and those providing financial investment services (except securities and commodity exchanges; portfolio management; investment advice; and trust, fiduciary, and custody services) on a fee or commission basis.

Illustrative Examples:

Exchange clearinghouses, commodities or securities
Stock quotation services
Gas lease brokers' offices


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
524Insurance Carriers and Related Activities TIndustries in the Insurance Carriers and Related Activities subsector group establishments that are primarily engaged in one of the following: (1) underwriting (assuming the risk, assigning premiums, and so forth) annuities and insurance policies or (2) facilitating such underwriting by selling insurance policies and by providing other insurance and employee benefit related services.
5241Insurance Carriers TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in underwriting (assuming the risk, assigning premiums, and so forth) annuities and insurance policies and investing premiums to build up a portfolio of financial assets to be used against future claims. Direct insurance carriers are establishments that are primarily engaged in initially underwriting and assuming the risk of annuities and insurance policies. Reinsurance carriers are establishments that are primarily engaged in assuming all or part of the risk associated with an existing insurance policy (or set of policies) originally underwritten by another insurance carrier.

Industries are defined in terms of the type of risk being insured against, such as death, loss of employment because of age or disability, and/or property damage. Contributions and premiums are set on the basis of actuarial calculations of probable payouts based on risk factors from experience tables and expected investment returns on reserves.
52411Direct Life, Health, and Medical Insurance CarriersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in initially underwriting (i.e., assuming the risk and assigning premiums) annuities and life insurance policies, disability income insurance policies, accidental death and dismemberment insurance policies, and health and medical insurance policies.

Cross-References.
524113Direct Life Insurance CarriersThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in initially underwriting (i.e., assuming the risk and assigning premiums) annuities and life insurance policies, disability income insurance policies, and accidental death and dismemberment insurance policies.

Cross-References.
524114Direct Health and Medical Insurance CarriersThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in initially underwriting (i.e., assuming the risk and assigning premiums) health and medical insurance policies. Group hospitalization plans and HMO establishments that provide health and medical insurance policies without providing health care services are included in this industry.

Cross-References.
52412Direct Insurance (except Life, Health, and Medical) CarriersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in initially underwriting (i.e., assuming the risk and assigning premiums) various types of insurance policies (except life, disability income, accidental death and dismemberment, and health and medical insurance policies).

Illustrative Examples:

Automobile insurance carriers, direct
Property and casualty insurance carriers, direct
Bank deposit insurance carriers, direct
Title insurance carriers, real estate, direct
Mortgage guaranty insurance carriers, direct
Warranty insurance carriers (e.g., appliance, automobile, homeowners’, product), direct


Cross-References.
524126Direct Property and Casualty Insurance CarriersThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in initially underwriting (i.e., assuming the risk and assigning premiums) insurance policies that protect policyholders against losses that may occur as a result of property damage or liability.

Illustrative Examples:

Automobile insurance carriers, direct
Malpractice insurance carriers, direct
Fidelity insurance carriers, direct
Mortgage guaranty insurance carriers, direct
Homeowners’ insurance carriers, direct
Surety insurance carriers, direct
Liability insurance carriers, direct


Cross-References.
524127Direct Title Insurance CarriersThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in initially underwriting (i.e., assuming the risk and assigning premiums) insurance policies to protect the owners of real estate or real estate creditors against loss sustained by reason of any title defect to real property.

Cross-References.
524128Other Direct Insurance (except Life, Health, and Medical) CarriersThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in initially underwriting (e.g., assuming the risk, assigning premiums) insurance policies (except life, disability income, accidental death and dismemberment, health and medical, property and casualty, and title insurance policies).

Illustrative Examples:

Bank deposit insurance carriers, direct
Product warranty insurance carriers, direct
Deposit or share insurance carriers, direct
Warranty insurance carriers (e.g., appliance, automobile, homeowners’, product), direct


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
52413Reinsurance CarriersSee industry description for 524130.
524130Reinsurance CarriersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in assuming all or part of the risk associated with existing insurance policies originally underwritten by other insurance carriers.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
5242Agencies, Brokerages, and Other Insurance Related Activities TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) acting as agents (i.e., brokers) in selling annuities and insurance policies or (2) providing other employee benefits and insurance related services, such as claims adjustment and third party administration.
52421Insurance Agencies and BrokeragesSee industry description for 524210.
524210Insurance Agencies and BrokeragesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in acting as agents (i.e., brokers) in selling annuities and insurance policies.

Cross-References.
52429Other Insurance Related ActivitiesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing services related to insurance (except insurance agencies and brokerages).

Illustrative Examples:

Claims adjusting, insurance
Insurance plan administrative services, third party
Insurance actuarial services
Insurance claims adjusting


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
524291Claims AdjustingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in investigating, appraising, and settling insurance claims.
524292Third Party Administration of Insurance and Pension FundsThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing third party administration services of insurance and pension funds, such as claims processing and other administrative services to insurance carriers, employee benefit plans, and self-insurance funds.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
524298All Other Insurance Related ActivitiesThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing insurance services on a contract or fee basis (except insurance agencies and brokerages, claims adjusting, and third party administration). Insurance advisory services, insurance actuarial services, and insurance ratemaking services are included in this industry.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
525Funds, Trusts, and Other Financial VehiclesIndustries in the Funds, Trusts, and Other Financial Vehicles subsector group legal entities (i.e., funds, plans, and/or programs) organized to pool securities or other assets on behalf of shareholders or beneficiaries of employee benefit or other trust funds. The portfolios are customized to achieve specific investment characteristics, such as diversification, risk, rate of return, and price volatility. These entities earn interest, dividends, and other investment income, but have little or no employment and no revenue from the sale of services. Establishments with employees devoted to the management of funds are classified in Industry Group 5239, Other Financial Investment Activities.

Establishments primarily engaged in holding the securities of (or other equity interests in) other firms are classified in Sector 55, Management of Companies and Enterprises. Equity real estate investment trusts (REITs) that are primarily engaged in leasing buildings, dwellings, or other real estate property to others are classified in Subsector 531, Real Estate.
5251Insurance and Employee Benefit FundsThis industry group comprises legal entities (i.e., funds, plans, and/or programs) organized to provide insurance and employee benefits exclusively for the sponsor, firm, or its employees or members.
52511Pension FundsSee industry description for 525110.
525110Pension FundsThis industry comprises legal entities (i.e., funds, plans, and/or programs) organized to provide retirement income benefits exclusively for the sponsor's employees or members.

Illustrative Examples:

Employee benefit plans
Retirement plans
Pension funds and plans


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
52512Health and Welfare FundsSee industry description for 525120.
525120Health and Welfare FundsThis industry comprises legal entities (i.e., funds, plans, and/or programs) organized to provide medical, surgical, hospital, vacation, training, and other health- and welfare-related employee benefits exclusively for the sponsor's employees or members.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
52519Other Insurance FundsSee industry description for 525190.
525190Other Insurance FundsThis industry comprises legal entities (i.e., funds (except pension, and health- and welfare-related employee benefit funds)) organized to provide insurance exclusively for the sponsor, firm, or its employees or members. Self-insurance funds (except employee benefit funds) and workers' compensation insurance funds are included in this industry.

Cross-References.
5259Other Investment Pools and FundsThis industry group comprises legal entities (i.e., investment pools and/or funds) organized to pool securities or other assets (except insurance and employee benefit funds) on behalf of shareholders, unitholders, or beneficiaries.
52591Open-End Investment FundsSee industry description for 525910.
525910Open-End Investment FundsThis industry comprises legal entities (i.e., open-end investment funds) organized to pool assets that consist of securities or other financial instruments. Shares in these pools are offered to the public in an initial offering with additional shares offered continuously and perpetually and redeemed at a specific price determined by the net asset value.

Illustrative Examples:

Investment funds, open-ended
Money market mutual funds, open-ended
52592Trusts, Estates, and Agency AccountsSee industry description for 525920.
525920Trusts, Estates, and Agency AccountsThis industry comprises legal entities, trusts, estates, or agency accounts, administered on behalf of the beneficiaries under the terms of a trust agreement, will, or agency agreement.

Illustrative Examples:

Bankruptcy estates
Private estates (i.e., administering on behalf of beneficiaries)
Personal investment trusts
Testamentary trusts


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
52599Other Financial VehiclesSee industry description for 525990.
525990Other Financial VehiclesThis industry comprises legal entities (i.e., funds (except insurance and employee benefit funds; open-end investment funds; trusts, estates, and agency accounts)). Included in this industry are mortgage real estate investment trusts (REITs).

Illustrative Examples:

Closed-end investment funds
Special purpose financial vehicles
Collateralized mortgage obligations (CMOs)
Unit investment trust funds
Face-amount certificate funds
Mortgage real estate investment trusts (REITs)
Real estate mortgage investment conduits (REMICs)


Cross-References.
53Real Estate and Rental and Leasing TThe Sector as a Whole

The Real Estate and Rental and Leasing sector comprises establishments primarily engaged in renting, leasing, or otherwise allowing the use of tangible or intangible assets, and establishments providing related services. The major portion of this sector comprises establishments that rent, lease, or otherwise allow the use of their own assets by others. The assets may be tangible, as is the case of real estate and equipment, or intangible, as is the case with patents and trademarks.

This sector also includes establishments primarily engaged in managing real estate for others, selling, renting and/or buying real estate for others, and appraising real estate. These activities are closely related to this sector's main activity, and from a production basis they are included here. In addition, a substantial proportion of property management is self-performed by lessors.

The main components of this sector are the real estate lessors industries (including equity real estate investment trusts (REITs)); equipment lessors industries (including motor vehicles, computers, and consumer goods); and lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets (except copyrighted works).

Excluded from this sector are establishments primarily engaged in renting or leasing equipment with operators. Establishments renting or leasing equipment with operators are classified in various subsectors of NAICS depending on the nature of the services provided (e.g., transportation, construction, agriculture). These activities are excluded from this sector because the client is paying for the expertise and knowledge of the equipment operator, in addition to the rental of the equipment. In many cases, such as the rental of heavy construction equipment, the operator is essential to operate the equipment.
531Real Estate TIndustries in the Real Estate subsector group establishments primarily engaged in renting or leasing real estate to others; managing real estate for others; selling, buying, or renting real estate for others; and providing other real estate related services, such as appraisal services.

This subsector includes equity real estate investment trusts (REITs) primarily engaged in leasing buildings, dwellings, or other real estate property to others. Mortgage REITs are classified in Subsector 525, Funds, Trusts, and Other Financial Vehicles.

Establishments primarily engaged in subdividing and developing unimproved real estate and constructing buildings for sale are classified in Subsector 236, Construction of Buildings. Establishments primarily engaged in subdividing and improving raw land for subsequent sale to builders are classified in Subsector 237, Heavy and Civil Engineering Construction.
5311Lessors of Real Estate TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in acting as lessors of (1) residential buildings and dwellings; (2) nonresidential buildings (except miniwarehouses); (3) miniwarehouses and self-storage units; and (4) other real estate property.
53111Lessors of Residential Buildings and DwellingsSee industry description for 531110.
531110Lessors of Residential Buildings and DwellingsThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in acting as lessors of buildings used as residences or dwellings, such as single-family homes, apartment buildings, and town homes. Included in this industry are owner-lessors and establishments renting real estate and then acting as lessors in subleasing it to others. The establishments in this industry may manage the property themselves or have another establishment manage it for them.

Cross-References.
53112Lessors of Nonresidential Buildings (except Miniwarehouses)See industry description for 531120.
531120Lessors of Nonresidential Buildings (except Miniwarehouses)This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in acting as lessors of buildings (except miniwarehouses and self-storage units) that are not used as residences or dwellings. Included in this industry are: (1) owner-lessors of nonresidential buildings; (2) establishments renting real estate and then acting as lessors in subleasing it to others; and (3) establishments providing full service office space, whether on a lease or service contract basis. The establishments in this industry may manage the property themselves or have another establishment manage it for them.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
53113Lessors of Miniwarehouses and Self-Storage UnitsSee industry description for 531130.
531130Lessors of Miniwarehouses and Self-Storage UnitsThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in renting or leasing space for self-storage. These establishments provide secure space (i.e., rooms, compartments, lockers, containers, or outdoor space) where clients can store and retrieve their goods.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
53119Lessors of Other Real Estate PropertySee industry description for 531190.
531190Lessors of Other Real Estate PropertyThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in acting as lessors of real estate (except buildings), such as manufactured home (i.e., mobile home) sites, vacant lots, and grazing land.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
5312Offices of Real Estate Agents and Brokers TNULL
53121Offices of Real Estate Agents and Brokers TSee industry description for 531210.
531210Offices of Real Estate Agents and BrokersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in acting as agents and/or brokers in one or more of the following: (1) selling real estate for others; (2) buying real estate for others; and (3) renting real estate for others.
5313Activities Related to Real Estate TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing real estate services (except lessors of real estate and offices of real estate agents and brokers). Included in this industry group are establishments primarily engaged in managing real estate for others and appraising real estate.
53131Real Estate Property ManagersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in managing real property for others. Management includes ensuring that various activities associated with the overall operation of the property are performed, such as collecting rents and overseeing other services (e.g., maintenance, security, trash removal.)

Cross-References.
531311Residential Property ManagersThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in managing residential real estate for others.

Cross-References.
531312Nonresidential Property ManagersThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in managing nonresidential real estate for others.

Cross-References.
53132Offices of Real Estate AppraisersSee industry description for 531320.
531320Offices of Real Estate AppraisersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in estimating the fair market value of real estate.
53139Other Activities Related to Real EstateSee industry description for 531390.
531390Other Activities Related to Real EstateThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in performing real estate related services (except lessors of real estate, offices of real estate agents and brokers, real estate property managers, and offices of real estate appraisers).

Illustrative Examples:

Real estate escrow agencies
Real estate listing services
Real estate fiduciaries' offices


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
532Rental and Leasing Services TIndustries in the Rental and Leasing Services subsector include establishments that provide a wide array of tangible goods, such as automobiles, computers, consumer goods, and industrial machinery and equipment, to customers in return for a periodic rental or lease payment.

The subsector includes two main types of establishments: (1) those that are engaged in renting consumer goods and equipment and (2) those that are engaged in leasing machinery and equipment often used for business operations. The first type typically operates from a retail-like or storefront facility and maintains inventories of goods that are rented for short periods of time. The latter type typically does not operate from retail-like locations or maintain inventories, and offers longer-term leases. These establishments work directly with clients to enable them to acquire the use of equipment on a lease basis, or they work with equipment vendors or dealers to support the marketing of equipment to their customers under lease arrangements. Equipment lessors generally structure lease contracts to meet the specialized needs of their clients and use their remarketing expertise to find other users for previously leased equipment. Establishments that provide operating and capital (i.e., finance) leases are included in this subsector.

Establishments primarily engaged in leasing in combination with providing loans are classified in Sector 52, Finance and Insurance. Establishments primarily engaged in leasing real property are classified in Subsector 531, Real Estate. Establishments primarily engaged in renting or leasing equipment with operators are classified in various subsectors of NAICS depending on the nature of the services provided (e.g., transportation, construction, agriculture). These activities are excluded from this subsector since the client is paying for the expertise and knowledge of the equipment operator, in addition to the rental of the equipment. In many cases, such as the rental of heavy construction equipment, the operator is essential to operate the equipment. Likewise, since the provision of crop harvesting services includes both the equipment and operator, it is included in Subsector 115, Support Activities for Agriculture and Forestry. The rental or leasing of copyrighted works is classified in Sector 51, Information, and the rental or leasing of assets, such as patents, trademarks, and/or licensing agreements, is classified in Subsector 533, Lessors of Nonfinancial Intangible Assets (except Copyrighted Works).
5321Automotive Equipment Rental and Leasing TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in renting or leasing passenger cars and trucks without drivers and utility trailers. These establishments generally operate from a retail-like facility. Some establishments offer only short-term rental, others only longer-term leases, and some provide both types of services.
53211Passenger Car Rental and Leasing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in renting or leasing passenger cars without drivers.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
532111Passenger Car RentalThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in renting passenger cars without drivers, generally for short periods of time.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
532112Passenger Car LeasingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in leasing passenger cars without drivers, generally for long periods of time.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
53212Truck, Utility Trailer, and RV (Recreational Vehicle) Rental and Leasing TSee industry description for 532120.
532120Truck, Utility Trailer, and RV (Recreational Vehicle) Rental and LeasingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in renting or leasing, without drivers, one or more of the following: trucks, truck tractors, buses, semi-trailers, utility trailers, or RVs (recreational vehicles).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
5322Consumer Goods Rental TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in renting personal and household-type goods. Establishments classified in this industry group generally provide short-term rental although in some instances, the goods may be leased for longer periods of time. These establishments often operate from a retail-like or storefront facility.
53221Consumer Electronics and Appliances Rental TSee industry description for 532210.
532210Consumer Electronics and Appliances RentalThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in renting consumer electronics equipment and appliances, such as televisions, stereos, and refrigerators. Included in this industry are appliance rental centers.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
53228Other Consumer Goods Rental TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in renting consumer goods (except consumer electronics and appliances).

Illustrative Examples:

Costume rental
Formal wear rental
Furniture (i.e., residential) rental centers
Hospital bed rental and leasing (i.e., home use)
Party rental supply centers
Sporting goods rental
Video disc rental for home electronic equipment (e.g., DVD)


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
532281Formal Wear and Costume RentalThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in renting clothing, such as formal wear, costumes (e.g., theatrical), or other clothing (except laundered uniforms and work apparel).

Cross-References.
532282Video Tape and Disc RentalThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in renting prerecorded video tapes and discs for home electronic equipment.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
532283Home Health Equipment RentalThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in renting home-type health and invalid equipment, such as wheel chairs, hospital beds, oxygen tanks, walkers, and crutches.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
532284Recreational Goods RentalThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in renting recreational goods, such as bicycles, canoes, motorcycles, skis, sailboats, beach chairs, and beach umbrellas.
532289All Other Consumer Goods RentalThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in renting consumer goods and products (except consumer electronics and appliances; formal wear and costumes; prerecorded video tapes and discs for home electronic equipment; home health furniture and equipment; and recreational goods). Included in this industry are furniture rental centers and party rental supply centers.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
5323General Rental Centers TNULL
53231General Rental Centers TSee industry description for 532310.
532310General Rental CentersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in renting a range of consumer, commercial, and industrial equipment. Establishments in this industry typically operate from conveniently located facilities where they maintain inventories of goods and equipment that they rent for short periods of time. The type of equipment that establishments in this industry provide often includes, but is not limited to: audio visual equipment, contractors' and builders' tools and equipment, home repair tools, lawn and garden equipment, moving equipment and supplies, and party and banquet equipment and supplies.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
5324Commercial and Industrial Machinery and Equipment Rental and Leasing TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in renting or leasing commercial-type and industrial-type machinery and equipment. Establishments included in this industry group are generally involved in providing capital or investment-type equipment that clients use in their business operations. These establishments typically cater to a business clientele and do not generally operate a retail-like or storefront facility.
53241Construction, Transportation, Mining, and Forestry Machinery and Equipment Rental and Leasing TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in renting or leasing one or more of the following without operators: heavy construction, off-highway transportation, mining, and forestry machinery and equipment. Establishments in this industry may rent or lease products, such as aircraft, railroad cars, steamships, tugboats, bulldozers, earthmoving equipment, well drilling machinery and equipment, or cranes.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
532411Commercial Air, Rail, and Water Transportation Equipment Rental and LeasingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in renting or leasing off-highway transportation equipment without operators, such as aircraft, railroad cars, steamships, or tugboats.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
532412Construction, Mining, and Forestry Machinery and Equipment Rental and LeasingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in renting or leasing heavy equipment without operators that may be used for construction, mining, or forestry, such as bulldozers, earthmoving equipment, well drilling machinery and equipment, or cranes.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
53242Office Machinery and Equipment Rental and Leasing TSee industry description for 532420.
532420Office Machinery and Equipment Rental and LeasingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in renting or leasing office machinery and equipment, such as computers, office furniture, duplicating machines (i.e., copiers), or facsimile machines.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
53249Other Commercial and Industrial Machinery and Equipment Rental and Leasing TSee industry description for 532490.
532490Other Commercial and Industrial Machinery and Equipment Rental and LeasingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in renting or leasing nonconsumer-type machinery and equipment (except heavy construction, transportation, mining, and forestry machinery and equipment without operators; and office machinery and equipment). Establishments in this industry rent or lease products, such as manufacturing equipment; metalworking, telecommunications, motion picture, theatrical machinery and equipment, or service industry machinery; institutional (i.e., public building) furniture, such as furniture for schools, theaters, or buildings; or agricultural equipment without operators.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
533Lessors of Nonfinancial Intangible Assets (except Copyrighted Works) TIndustries in the Lessors of Nonfinancial Intangible Assets (except Copyrighted Works) subsector include establishments primarily engaged in assigning rights to assets, such as patents, trademarks, brand names, and/or franchise agreements, for which a royalty payment or licensing fee is paid to the asset holder. Establishments in this subsector own the patents, trademarks, and/or franchise agreements that they allow others to use or reproduce for a fee and may or may not have created those assets.

Establishments that allow franchisees the use of the franchise name, contingent on the franchisee buying products or services from the franchisor, are classified elsewhere.

Excluded from this subsector are establishments primarily engaged in leasing real property and establishments primarily engaged in leasing tangible assets, such as automobiles, computers, consumer goods, and industrial machinery and equipment. These establishments are classified in Subsector 531, Real Estate, and Subsector 532, Rental and Leasing Services, respectively.
5331Lessors of Nonfinancial Intangible Assets (except Copyrighted Works) TNULL
53311Lessors of Nonfinancial Intangible Assets (except Copyrighted Works) TSee industry description for 533110.
533110Lessors of Nonfinancial Intangible Assets (except Copyrighted Works)This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in assigning rights to assets, such as patents, trademarks, brand names, and/or franchise agreements, for which a royalty payment or licensing fee is paid to the asset holder.

Cross-References.
54Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services TThe Sector as a Whole

The Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services sector comprises establishments that specialize in performing professional, scientific, and technical activities for others. These activities require a high degree of expertise and training. The establishments in this sector specialize according to expertise and provide these services to clients in a variety of industries and, in some cases, to households. Activities performed include: legal advice and representation; accounting, bookkeeping, and payroll services; architectural, engineering, and specialized design services; computer services; consulting services; research services; advertising services; photographic services; translation and interpretation services; veterinary services; and other professional, scientific, and technical services.

This sector excludes establishments primarily engaged in providing a range of day-to-day office administrative services, such as financial planning, billing and recordkeeping, personnel supply, and physical distribution and logistics. These establishments are classified in Sector 56, Administrative and Support and Waste Management and Remediation Services.
541Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services TIndustries in the Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services subsector group establishments engaged in processes where human capital is the major input. These establishments make available the knowledge and skills of their employees, often on an assignment basis, where an individual or team is responsible for the delivery of services to the client. The individual industries of this subsector are defined on the basis of the particular expertise and training of the services provider.

The distinguishing feature of the Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services subsector is the fact that most of the industries grouped in it have production processes that are almost wholly dependent on worker skills. In most of these industries, equipment and materials are not of major importance, unlike health care, for example, where "high-tech" machines and materials are important collaborating inputs to labor skills in the production of health care. Thus, the establishments classified in this subsector sell expertise. Much of the expertise requires degrees, though not in every case.
5411Legal Services TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in offering legal services, such as those offered by offices of lawyers, offices of notaries, and title abstract and settlement offices, and paralegal services.
54111Offices of Lawyers TSee industry description for 541110.
541110Offices of LawyersThis industry comprises offices of legal practitioners known as lawyers or attorneys (i.e., counselors-at-law) primarily engaged in the practice of law. Establishments in this industry may provide expertise in a range or in specific areas of law, such as criminal law, corporate law, family and estate law, patent law, real estate law, or tax law.

Cross-References.
54112Offices of Notaries TSee industry description for 541120.
541120Offices of NotariesThis industry comprises establishments (except offices of lawyers and attorneys) primarily engaged in drafting, approving, and executing legal documents, such as real estate transactions, wills, and contracts; and in receiving, indexing, and storing such documents.

Cross-References.
54119Other Legal Services TThis industry comprises establishments of legal practitioners (except lawyers and attorneys) primarily engaged in providing specialized legal or paralegal services.

Illustrative Examples:

Notary public services
Process serving services
Paralegal services
Real estate settlement offices
Patent agent services (i.e., patent filing and searching services)
Real estate title abstract companies


Cross-References.
541191Title Abstract and Settlement OfficesThis U.S. industry comprises establishments (except offices of lawyers and attorneys) primarily engaged in one or more of the following activities: (1) researching public land records to gather information relating to real estate titles; (2) preparing documents necessary for the transfer of the title, financing, and settlement; (3) conducting final real estate settlements and closings; and (4) filing legal and other documents relating to the sale of real estate. Real estate settlement offices, title abstract companies, and title search companies are included in this industry.

Cross-References.
541199All Other Legal ServicesThis U.S. industry comprises establishments of legal practitioners (except offices of lawyers and attorneys, settlement offices, and title abstract offices). These establishments are primarily engaged in providing specialized legal or paralegal services.

Illustrative Examples:

Notary public services
Patent agent services (i.e., patent filing and searching services)
Paralegal services
Process serving services


Cross-References.
5412Accounting, Tax Preparation, Bookkeeping, and Payroll Services TNULL
54121Accounting, Tax Preparation, Bookkeeping, and Payroll Services TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing services, such as auditing of accounting records, designing accounting systems, preparing financial statements, developing budgets, preparing tax returns, processing payrolls, bookkeeping, and billing.

Illustrative Examples:

Accountants' offices
Payroll processing services
Bookkeeping services
Tax return preparation services


Cross-References.
541211Offices of Certified Public AccountantsThis U.S. industry comprises establishments of accountants that are certified to audit the accounting records of public and private organizations and to attest to compliance with generally accepted accounting practices. Offices of certified public accountants (CPAs) may provide one or more of the following accounting services: (1) auditing financial statements; (2) designing accounting systems; (3) preparing financial statements; (4) developing budgets; and (5) providing advice on matters related to accounting. These establishments may also provide related services, such as bookkeeping, tax return preparation, and payroll processing.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
541213Tax Preparation ServicesThis U.S. industry comprises establishments (except offices of CPAs) engaged in providing tax return preparation services without also providing accounting, bookkeeping, billing, or payroll processing services. Basic knowledge of tax law and filing requirements is required.

Cross-References.
541214Payroll ServicesThis U.S. industry comprises establishments (except offices of CPAs) engaged in the following without also providing accounting, bookkeeping, or billing services: (1) collecting information on hours worked, pay rates, deductions, and other payroll-related data from their clients and (2) using that information to generate paychecks, payroll reports, and tax filings. These establishments may use data processing and tabulating techniques as part of providing their services.

Cross-References.
541219Other Accounting ServicesThis U.S. industry comprises establishments (except offices of CPAs) engaged in providing accounting services (except tax return preparation services only or payroll services only). These establishments may also provide tax return preparation or payroll services. Accountant (except CPA) offices, bookkeeper offices, and billing offices are included in this industry.

Cross-References.
5413Architectural, Engineering, and Related Services TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in architectural, engineering, and related services, such as drafting services, building inspection services, geophysical surveying and mapping services, surveying and mapping (except geophysical) services, and testing services.
54131Architectural Services TSee industry description for 541310.
541310Architectural ServicesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in planning and designing residential, institutional, leisure, commercial, and industrial buildings and structures by applying knowledge of design, construction procedures, zoning regulations, building codes, and building materials.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
54132Landscape Architectural Services TSee industry description for 541320.
541320Landscape Architectural ServicesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in planning and designing the development of land areas for projects, such as parks and other recreational areas; airports; highways; hospitals; schools; land subdivisions; and commercial, industrial, and residential areas, by applying knowledge of land characteristics, location of buildings and structures, use of land areas, and design of landscape projects.

Illustrative Examples:

Garden planning services
Landscape architects' offices
Golf course or ski area design services
Landscape consulting services
Industrial land use planning services
Landscape design services


Cross-References.
54133Engineering Services TSee industry description for 541330.
541330Engineering ServicesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in applying physical laws and principles of engineering in the design, development, and utilization of machines, materials, instruments, structures, processes, and systems. The assignments undertaken by these establishments may involve any of the following activities: provision of advice, preparation of feasibility studies, preparation of preliminary and final plans and designs, provision of technical services during the construction or installation phase, inspection and evaluation of engineering projects, and related services.

Illustrative Examples:

Civil engineering services
Environmental engineering services
Construction engineering services
Mechanical engineering services
Engineers' offices


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
54134Drafting Services TSee industry description for 541340.
541340Drafting ServicesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in drawing detailed layouts, plans, and illustrations of buildings, structures, systems, or components from engineering and architectural specifications.
54135Building Inspection Services TSee industry description for 541350.
541350Building Inspection ServicesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing building inspection services. These establishments typically evaluate all aspects of the building structure and component systems and prepare a report on the physical condition of the property, generally for buyers or others involved in real estate transactions. Building inspection bureaus and establishments providing home inspection services are included in this industry.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
54136Geophysical Surveying and Mapping Services TSee industry description for 541360.
541360Geophysical Surveying and Mapping ServicesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in gathering, interpreting, and mapping geophysical data. Establishments in this industry often specialize in locating and measuring the extent of subsurface resources, such as oil, gas, and minerals, but they may also conduct surveys for engineering purposes. Establishments in this industry use a variety of surveying techniques depending on the purpose of the survey, including magnetic surveys, gravity surveys, seismic surveys, or electrical and electromagnetic surveys.

Cross-References.
54137Surveying and Mapping (except Geophysical) Services TSee industry description for 541370.
541370Surveying and Mapping (except Geophysical) ServicesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in performing surveying and mapping services of the surface of the earth, including the sea floor. These services may include surveying and mapping of areas above or below the surface of the earth, such as the creation of view easements or segregating rights in parcels of land by creating underground utility easements.

Illustrative Examples:

Cadastral surveying services
Mapping (except geophysical) services
Cartographic surveying services
Topographic surveying services
Geodetic surveying services


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
54138Testing Laboratories TSee industry description for 541380.
541380Testing LaboratoriesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in performing physical, chemical, and other analytical testing services, such as acoustics or vibration testing, assaying, biological testing (except medical and veterinary), calibration testing, electrical and electronic testing, geotechnical testing, mechanical testing, nondestructive testing, or thermal testing. The testing may occur in a laboratory or on-site.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
5414Specialized Design Services TThis industry group comprises establishments providing specialized design services (except architectural, engineering, and computer systems design).
54141Interior Design Services TSee industry description for 541410.
541410Interior Design ServicesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in planning, designing, and administering projects in interior spaces to meet the physical and aesthetic needs of people using them, taking into consideration building codes, health and safety regulations, traffic patterns and floor planning, mechanical and electrical needs, and interior fittings and furniture. Interior designers and interior design consultants work in areas, such as hospitality design, health care design, institutional design, commercial and corporate design, and residential design. This industry also includes interior decorating consultants engaged exclusively in providing aesthetic services associated with interior spaces.
54142Industrial Design Services TSee industry description for 541420.
541420Industrial Design ServicesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in creating and developing designs and specifications that optimize the use, value, and appearance of their products. These services can include the determination of the materials, construction, mechanisms, shape, color, and surface finishes of the product, taking into consideration human characteristics and needs, safety, market appeal, and efficiency in production, distribution, use, and maintenance. Establishments providing automobile or furniture industrial design services or industrial design consulting services are included in this industry.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
54143Graphic Design Services TSee industry description for 541430.
541430Graphic Design ServicesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in planning, designing, and managing the production of visual communication in order to convey specific messages or concepts, clarify complex information, or project visual identities. These services can include the design of printed materials, packaging, advertising, signage systems, and corporate identification (logos). This industry also includes commercial artists engaged exclusively in generating drawings and illustrations requiring technical accuracy or interpretative skills.

Illustrative Examples:

Commercial art studios
Independent commercial or graphic artists
Corporate identification (i.e., logo) design services
Medical art or illustration services
Graphic design consulting services


Cross-References.
54149Other Specialized Design Services TSee industry description for 541490.
541490Other Specialized Design ServicesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing professional design services (except architectural, landscape architecture, engineering, interior, industrial, graphic, and computer systems design).

Illustrative Examples:

Costume design services (except independent theatrical costume designers)
Jewelry design services
Fashion design services
Float design services
Shoe design services
Fur design services
Textile design services


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
5415Computer Systems Design and Related Services TNULL
54151Computer Systems Design and Related Services TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing expertise in the field of information technologies through one or more of the following activities: (1) writing, modifying, testing, and supporting software to meet the needs of a particular customer; (2) planning and designing computer systems that integrate computer hardware, software, and communication technologies; (3) on-site management and operation of clients' computer systems and/or data processing facilities; and (4) other professional and technical computer related advice and services.

Illustrative Examples:

Computer facilities management services
Custom computer programming services
Computer hardware or software consulting services
Software installation services
Computer systems integration design services


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
541511Custom Computer Programming ServicesThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in writing, modifying, testing, and supporting software to meet the needs of a particular customer.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
541512Computer Systems Design ServicesThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in planning and designing computer systems that integrate computer hardware, software, and communication technologies. The hardware and software components of the system may be provided by this establishment or company as part of integrated services or may be provided by third parties or vendors. These establishments often install the system and train and support users of the system.

Illustrative Examples:

Computer systems integration design consulting services
Local area network (LAN) computer systems integration design services
Information management computer systems integration design services
Office automation computer systems integration design services


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
541513Computer Facilities Management ServicesThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing on-site management and operation of clients' computer systems and/or data processing facilities. Establishments providing computer systems or data processing facilities support services are included in this industry.

Cross-References.
541519Other Computer Related ServicesThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing computer related services (except custom programming, systems integration design, and facilities management services). Establishments providing computer disaster recovery services or software installation services are included in this industry.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
5416Management, Scientific, and Technical Consulting Services TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing advice and assistance to businesses and other organizations on management, environmental, scientific, and technical issues.
54161Management Consulting Services TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing advice and assistance to businesses and other organizations on management issues, such as strategic and organizational planning; financial planning and budgeting; marketing objectives and policies; human resource policies, practices, and planning; production scheduling; and control planning.

Illustrative Examples:

Actuarial, benefit, and compensation consulting services
Marketing consulting services
Administrative and general management consulting services
Process, physical distribution, and logistics consulting services
Human resources consulting services


Cross-References.
541611Administrative Management and General Management Consulting ServicesThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing operating advice and assistance to businesses and other organizations on administrative management issues, such as financial planning and budgeting, equity and asset management, records management, office planning, strategic and organizational planning, site selection, new business start-up, and business process improvement. This industry also includes establishments of general management consultants that provide a full range of administrative, human resource, marketing, process, physical distribution, logistics, or other management consulting services to clients.

Illustrative Examples:

Administrative management consulting services
Site selection consulting services
Financial management (except investment advice) consulting services
Strategic planning consulting services
General management consulting services


Cross-References.
541612Human Resources Consulting ServicesThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing advice and assistance to businesses and other organizations in one or more of the following areas: (1) human resource and personnel policies, practices, and procedures; (2) employee benefits planning, communication, and administration; (3) compensation systems planning; and (4) wage and salary administration.

Illustrative Examples:

Benefit or compensation consulting services
Employee assessment consulting services
Personnel management consulting services
Human resources consulting services


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
541613Marketing Consulting ServicesThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing operating advice and assistance to businesses and other organizations on marketing issues, such as developing marketing objectives and policies, sales forecasting, new product developing and pricing, licensing and franchise planning, and marketing planning and strategy.

Illustrative Examples:

Customer services management consulting services
New product development consulting services
Marketing management consulting services
Sales management consulting services


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
541614Process, Physical Distribution, and Logistics Consulting ServicesThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing operating advice and assistance to businesses and other organizations in: (1) manufacturing operations improvement; (2) productivity improvement; (3) production planning and control; (4) quality assurance and quality control; (5) inventory management; (6) distribution networks; (7) warehouse use, operations, and utilization; (8) transportation and shipment of goods and materials; and (9) materials management and handling.

Illustrative Examples:

Freight rate or tariff rate consulting services
Productivity improvement consulting services
Inventory planning and control management consulting services
Transportation management consulting services
Manufacturing management consulting services


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
541618Other Management Consulting ServicesThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing management consulting services (except administrative and general management consulting; human resources consulting; marketing consulting; or process, physical distribution, and logistics consulting). Establishments providing telecommunications or utilities management consulting services are included in this industry.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
54162Environmental Consulting Services TSee industry description for 541620.
541620Environmental Consulting ServicesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing advice and assistance to businesses and other organizations on environmental issues, such as the control of environmental contamination from pollutants, toxic substances, and hazardous materials. These establishments identify problems (e.g., inspect buildings for hazardous materials), measure and evaluate risks, and recommend solutions. They employ a multidisciplined staff of scientists, engineers, and other technicians with expertise in areas, such as air and water quality, asbestos contamination, remediation, ecological restoration, and environmental law. Establishments providing sanitation or site remediation consulting services are included in this industry.

Cross-References.
54169Other Scientific and Technical Consulting Services TSee industry description for 541690.
541690Other Scientific and Technical Consulting ServicesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing advice and assistance to businesses and other organizations on scientific and technical issues (except environmental).

Illustrative Examples:

Agricultural consulting services
Motion picture consulting services
Biological consulting services
Physics consulting services
Chemical consulting services
Radio consulting services
Economic consulting services
Safety consulting services
Energy consulting services
Security consulting services


Cross-References.
5417Scientific Research and Development Services TThis industry group comprises establishments engaged in conducting original investigation undertaken on a systematic basis to gain new knowledge (research) and/or the application of research findings or other scientific knowledge for the creation of new or significantly improved products or processes (experimental development). Techniques may include modeling and simulation. The industries within this industry group are defined on the basis of the domain of research; that is, on the scientific expertise of the establishment.
54171Research and Development in the Physical, Engineering, and Life Sciences TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in conducting research and experimental development in the physical, engineering, and life sciences, such as agriculture, electronics, environmental, biology, botany, biotechnology, computers, chemistry, food, fisheries, forests, geology, health, mathematics, medicine, nanotechnology, oceanography, pharmacy, physics, veterinary, and other allied subjects.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
541713Research and Development in NanotechnologyThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in conducting nanotechnology research and experimental development. Nanotechnology research and experimental development involves the study of matter at the nanoscale (i.e., a scale of about 1 to 100 nanometers). This research and development in nanotechnology may result in development of new nanotechnology processes or in prototypes of new or altered materials and/or products that may be reproduced, utilized, or implemented by various industries.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
541714Research and Development in Biotechnology (except Nanobiotechnology)This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in conducting biotechnology (except nanobiotechnology) research and experimental development. Biotechnology (except nanobiotechnology) research and experimental development involves the study of the use of microorganisms and cellular and biomolecular processes to develop or alter living or non-living materials. This research and development in biotechnology (except nanobiotechnology) may result in development of new biotechnology (except nanobiotechnology) processes or in prototypes of new or genetically-altered products that may be reproduced, utilized, or implemented by various industries.

Illustrative Examples:

Cloning research and experimental development laboratories
DNA technologies (e.g., microarrays) research and experimental development laboratories
Nucleic acid chemistry research and experimental development laboratories
Protein engineering research and experimental development laboratories
Recombinant DNA research and experimental development laboratories


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
541715Research and Development in the Physical, Engineering, and Life Sciences (except Nanotechnology and Biotechnology)This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in conducting research and experimental development (except nanotechnology and biotechnology research and experimental development) in the physical, engineering, and life sciences, such as agriculture, electronics, environmental, biology, botany, computers, chemistry, food, fisheries, forests, geology, health, mathematics, medicine, oceanography, pharmacy, physics, veterinary and other allied subjects.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
54172Research and Development in the Social Sciences and Humanities TSee industry description for 541720.
541720Research and Development in the Social Sciences and HumanitiesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in conducting research and analyses in cognitive development, sociology, psychology, language, behavior, economic, and other social science and humanities research.

Cross-References.
5418Advertising, Public Relations, and Related Services TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in advertising, public relations, and related services, such as media buying, independent media representation, outdoor advertising, direct mail advertising, advertising material distribution services, and other services related to advertising.
54181Advertising Agencies TSee industry description for 541810.
541810Advertising AgenciesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in creating advertising campaigns and placing such advertising in periodicals, newspapers, radio and television, or other media. These establishments are organized to provide a full range of services (i.e., through in-house capabilities or subcontracting), including advice, creative services, account management, production of advertising material, media planning, and buying (i.e., placing advertising).

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
54182Public Relations Agencies TSee industry description for 541820.
541820Public Relations AgenciesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in designing and implementing public relations campaigns. These campaigns are designed to promote the interests and image of their clients. Establishments providing lobbying, political consulting, or public relations consulting are included in this industry.
54183Media Buying Agencies TSee industry description for 541830.
541830Media Buying AgenciesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in purchasing advertising time or space from media outlets and reselling it to advertising agencies or individual companies directly.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
54184Media Representatives TSee industry description for 541840.
541840Media RepresentativesThis industry comprises establishments of independent representatives primarily engaged in selling media time or space for media owners.

Illustrative Examples:

Newspaper advertising representatives (i.e., independent of media owners)
Radio advertising representatives (i.e., independent of media owners)
Publishers' advertising representatives (i.e., independent of media owners)
Television advertising representatives (i.e., independent of media owners)


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
54185Outdoor Advertising TSee industry description for 541850.
541850Outdoor AdvertisingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in creating and designing public display advertising campaign materials, such as printed, painted, or electronic displays; and/or placing such displays on indoor or outdoor billboards and panels, or on or within transit vehicles or facilities, shopping malls, retail (in-store) displays, and other display structures or sites.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
54186Direct Mail Advertising TSee industry description for 541860.
541860Direct Mail AdvertisingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) creating and designing advertising campaigns for the purpose of distributing advertising materials (e.g., coupons, flyers, samples) or specialties (e.g., keychains, magnets, pens with customized messages imprinted) by mail or other direct distribution and/or (2) preparing advertising materials or specialties for mailing or other direct distribution. These establishments may also compile, maintain, sell, and rent mailing lists.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
54187Advertising Material Distribution Services TSee industry description for 541870.
541870Advertising Material Distribution ServicesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the direct distribution or delivery of advertisements (e.g., circulars, coupons, handbills) or samples. Establishments in this industry use methods, such as delivering advertisements or samples door-to-door, placing flyers or coupons on car windshields in parking lots, or handing out samples in retail stores.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
54189Other Services Related to Advertising TSee industry description for 541890.
541890Other Services Related to AdvertisingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing advertising services (except advertising agency services, public relations agency services, media buying agency services, media representative services, display advertising services, direct mail advertising services, advertising material distribution services, and marketing consulting services).

Illustrative Examples:

Advertising specialties (e.g., keychains, magnets, pens) distribution services (except direct mail)
Sign lettering and painting services
Display lettering services
Store window dressing or trimming services
Mannequin decorating services
Welcoming services (i.e., advertising services)
Merchandise demonstration services


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
5419Other Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services TThis industry group comprises establishments engaged in professional, scientific, and technical services (except legal services; accounting, tax preparation, bookkeeping, and related services; architectural, engineering, and related services; specialized design services; computer systems design and related services; management, scientific, and technical consulting services; scientific research and development services; and advertising, public relations, and related services).
54191Marketing Research and Public Opinion Polling TSee industry description for 541910.
541910Marketing Research and Public Opinion PollingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in systematically gathering, recording, tabulating, and presenting marketing and public opinion data.

Illustrative Examples:

Broadcast media rating services
Political opinion polling services
Marketing analysis or research services
Statistical sampling services
Opinion research services


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
54192Photographic Services TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing still, video, or digital photography services. These establishments may specialize in a particular field of photography, such as commercial and industrial photography, portrait photography, and special events photography. Commercial or portrait photography studios are included in this industry.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
541921Photography Studios, PortraitThis U.S. industry comprises establishments known as portrait studios primarily engaged in providing still, video, or digital portrait photography services.

Illustrative Examples:

Home photography services
School photography services
Passport photography services
Videotaping services for special events (e.g., weddings)


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
541922Commercial PhotographyThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing commercial photography services, generally for advertising agencies, publishers, and other business and industrial users.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
54193Translation and Interpretation Services TSee industry description for 541930.
541930Translation and Interpretation ServicesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in translating written material and interpreting speech from one language to another and establishments primarily engaged in providing sign language services.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
54194Veterinary Services TSee industry description for 541940.
541940Veterinary ServicesThis industry comprises establishments of licensed veterinary practitioners primarily engaged in the practice of veterinary medicine, dentistry, or surgery for animals; and establishments primarily engaged in providing testing services for licensed veterinary practitioners.

Illustrative Examples:

Animal hospitals
Veterinary clinics
Veterinarians' offices
Veterinary testing laboratories


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
54199All Other Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services TSee industry description for 541990.
541990All Other Professional, Scientific, and Technical ServicesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the provision of professional, scientific, or technical services (except legal services; accounting, tax preparation, bookkeeping, and related services; architectural, engineering, and related services; specialized design services; computer systems design and related services; management, scientific, and technical consulting services; scientific research and development services; advertising, public relations, and related services; market research and public opinion polling; photographic services; translation and interpretation services; and veterinary services).

Illustrative Examples:

Appraisal (except real estate) services
Marine surveyor (i.e., appraiser) services
Arbitration and conciliation services (except by lawyer, attorney, or paralegal offices)
Patent broker services (i.e., patent marketing services)
Commodity inspector services
Pipeline or power line inspection (i.e., visual) services
Consumer credit counseling services
Weather forecasting services
Handwriting analysis services


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
55Management of Companies and Enterprises TThe Sector as a Whole

The Management of Companies and Enterprises sector comprises (1) establishments that hold the securities of (or other equity interests in) companies and enterprises for the purpose of owning a controlling interest or influencing management decisions or (2) establishments (except government establishments) that administer, oversee, and manage establishments of the company or enterprise and that normally undertake the strategic or organizational planning and decision-making role of the company or enterprise. Establishments that administer, oversee, and manage may hold the securities of the company or enterprise.

Establishments in this sector perform essential activities that are often undertaken in-house by establishments in many sectors of the economy. By consolidating the performance of these activities of the enterprise at one establishment, economies of scale are achieved.

Government establishments primarily engaged in administering, overseeing, and managing governmental programs are classified in Sector 92, Public Administration. Establishments primarily engaged in providing a range of day-to-day office administrative services, such as financial planning, billing and recordkeeping, personnel, and physical distribution and logistics, are classified in Industry 56111, Office Administrative Services.
551Management of Companies and Enterprises TIndustries in the Management of Companies and Enterprises subsector include three main types of establishments: (1) those that hold the securities of (or other equity interests in) companies and enterprises; (2) those (except government establishments) that administer, oversee, and manage other establishments of the company or enterprise but do not hold the securities of these establishments; and (3) those that both administer, oversee, and manage other establishments of the company or enterprise and hold the securities of (or other equity interests in) these establishments. Those establishments that administer, oversee, and manage normally undertake the strategic or organizational planning and decision-making role of the company or enterprise.
5511Management of Companies and Enterprises TNULL
55111Management of Companies and Enterprises TThis industry comprises (1) establishments primarily engaged in holding the securities of (or other equity interests in) companies and enterprises for the purpose of owning a controlling interest or influencing management decisions or (2) establishments (except government establishments) that administer, oversee, and manage other establishments of the company or enterprise and that normally undertake the strategic or organizational planning and decision-making role of the company or enterprise. Establishments that administer, oversee, and manage may hold the securities of the company or enterprise.

Cross-References.
551111Offices of Bank Holding CompaniesThis U.S. industry comprises legal entities known as bank holding companies primarily engaged in holding the securities of (or other equity interests in) companies and enterprises for the purpose of owning a controlling interest or influencing the management decisions of these firms. The holding companies in this industry do not administer, oversee, and manage other establishments of the company or enterprise whose securities they hold.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
551112Offices of Other Holding CompaniesThis U.S. industry comprises legal entities known as holding companies (except bank holding) primarily engaged in holding the securities of (or other equity interests in) companies and enterprises for the purpose of owning a controlling interest or influencing the management decisions of these firms. The holding companies in this industry do not administer, oversee, and manage other establishments of the company or enterprise whose securities they hold.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
551114Corporate, Subsidiary, and Regional Managing OfficesThis U.S. industry comprises establishments (except government establishments) primarily engaged in administering, overseeing, and managing other establishments of the company or enterprise. These establishments normally undertake the strategic or organizational planning and decision-making role of the company or enterprise. Establishments in this industry may hold the securities of the company or enterprise.

Illustrative Examples:

Centralized administrative offices
Head offices
Corporate offices
Holding companies that manage
District and regional offices
Subsidiary management offices


Cross-References.
56Administrative and Support and Waste Management and Remediation Services TThe Sector as a Whole

The Administrative and Support and Waste Management and Remediation Services sector comprises establishments performing routine support activities for the day-to-day operations of other organizations. These essential activities are often undertaken in-house by establishments in many sectors of the economy. The establishments in this sector specialize in one or more of these support activities and provide these services to clients in a variety of industries and, in some cases, to households. Activities performed include: office administration, hiring and placing of personnel, document preparation and similar clerical services, solicitation, collection, security and surveillance services, cleaning, and waste disposal services.

The administrative and management activities performed by establishments in this sector are typically on a contract or fee basis. These activities may also be performed by establishments that are part of the company or enterprise. However, establishments involved in administering, overseeing, and managing other establishments of the company or enterprise are classified in Sector 55, Management of Companies and Enterprises. Establishments in Sector 55, Management of Companies and Enterprises, normally undertake the strategic and organizational planning and decision-making role of the company or enterprise. Government establishments engaged in administering, overseeing, and managing governmental programs are classified in Sector 92, Public Administration.
561Administrative and Support Services TIndustries in the Administrative and Support Services subsector group establishments engaged in activities that support the day-to-day operations of other organizations. The processes employed in this sector (e.g., general management, personnel administration, clerical activities, cleaning activities) are often integral parts of the activities of establishments found in all sectors of the economy. The establishments classified in this subsector have specialization in one or more of these activities and can, therefore, provide services to clients in a variety of industries and, in some cases, to households. The individual industries of this subsector are defined on the basis of the particular process that they are engaged in and the particular services they provide.

Many of the activities performed in this subsector are ongoing routine support functions that all businesses and organizations must do and that they have traditionally done for themselves. Recent trends, however, are to contract or purchase such services from businesses that specialize in such activities and can, therefore, provide the services more efficiently.

The industries in this subsector cannot be viewed as strictly "support." The Travel Arrangement and Reservation Services industry group includes travel agents, tour operators, and providers of other travel arrangement services, such as hotel and restaurant reservations and arranging the purchase of tickets, serving many types of clients, including individual consumers. This group was placed in this subsector because the services are often of the "support" nature (e.g., travel arrangement), and businesses and other organizations increasingly purchase such services.

The administrative and management activities performed by establishments in this sector are typically on a contract or fee basis. These activities may also be performed by establishments that are part of the company or enterprise. However, establishments involved in administering, overseeing, and managing other establishments of the company or enterprise are classified in Sector 55, Management of Companies and Enterprises. Establishments in Sector 55, Management of Companies and Enterprises, normally undertake the strategic and organizational planning and decision-making role of the company or enterprise. Government establishments engaged in administering, overseeing, and managing governmental programs are classified in Sector 92, Public Administration.
5611Office Administrative Services TNULL
56111Office Administrative Services TSee industry description for 561110.
561110Office Administrative ServicesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing a range of day-to-day office administrative services, such as financial planning; billing and recordkeeping; personnel; and physical distribution and logistics, for others on a contract or fee basis. These establishments do not provide operating staff to carry out the complete operations of a business.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
5612Facilities Support Services TNULL
56121Facilities Support Services TSee industry description for 561210.
561210Facilities Support ServicesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing operating staff to perform a combination of support services within a client's facilities. Establishments in this industry typically provide a combination of services, such as janitorial, maintenance, trash disposal, guard and security, mail routing, reception, laundry, and related services to support operations within facilities. These establishments provide operating staff to carry out these support activities, but are not involved with or responsible for the core business or activities of the client. Establishments providing facilities (except computer and/or data processing) operation support services and establishments providing private jail services or operating correctional facilities (i.e., jails) on a contract or fee basis are included in this industry.

Cross-References.
5613Employment Services TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in one of the following: (1) listing employment vacancies and referring or placing applicants for employment; (2) providing executive search, recruitment, and placement services; (3) supplying workers to clients' businesses for limited periods of time to supplement the working force of the client; or (4) providing human resources and human resource management services to client businesses and households.
56131Employment Placement Agencies and Executive Search Services TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one of the following: 1) listing employment vacancies and referring or placing applicants for employment; or 2) providing executive search, recruitment, and placement services.

Illustrative Examples:

Employment agencies
Executive placement agencies or services
Executive search services


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
561311Employment Placement AgenciesThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in listing employment vacancies and in referring or placing applicants for employment. The individuals referred or placed are not employees of the employment agencies.

Illustrative Examples:

Babysitting bureaus (i.e., registries)
Employment registries
Casting agencies or bureaus (i.e., motion picture, theatrical, video)
Model registries
Employment agencies


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
561312Executive Search ServicesThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing executive search, recruitment, and placement services for clients with specific executive and senior management position requirements. The range of services provided by these establishments may include developing a search strategy and position specification based on the culture and needs of the client; researching, identifying, screening, and interviewing candidates; verifying candidate qualifications; and assisting in final offer negotiations and assimilation of the selected candidate. The individuals identified, recruited, or placed are not employees of the executive search services establishments.

Illustrative Examples:

Senior executive search services
Executive placement services
Executive search services


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
56132Temporary Help Services TSee industry description for 561320.
561320Temporary Help ServicesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in supplying workers to clients' businesses for limited periods of time to supplement the working force of the client. The individuals provided are employees of the temporary help services establishment. However, these establishments do not provide direct supervision of their employees at the clients' work sites.

Illustrative Examples:

Help supply services
Model supply services
Labor (except farm) contractors (i.e., personnel suppliers)
Temporary employment or temporary staffing services
Manpower pools


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
56133Professional Employer Organizations TSee industry description for 561330.
561330Professional Employer OrganizationsThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing human resources and human resource management services to client businesses and households. Establishments in this industry operate in a co-employment relationship with client businesses or organizations and are specialized in performing a wide range of human resource and personnel management duties, such as payroll, payroll tax, benefits administration, workers' compensation, unemployment, and human resource administration. Professional employer organizations (PEOs) are responsible for payroll, including withholding and remitting employment-related taxes, for some or all of the employees of their clients, and also serve as the employer of those employees for benefits and related purposes.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
5614Business Support Services TThis industry group comprises establishments engaged in performing activities that are ongoing routine business support functions that businesses and organizations traditionally do for themselves.
56141Document Preparation Services TSee industry description for 561410.
561410Document Preparation ServicesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) letter or resume writing; (2) document editing or proofreading; (3) typing, word processing, or desktop publishing; and (4) stenography (except court reporting or stenotype recording), transcription, and other secretarial services.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
56142Telephone Call Centers TThis industry comprises (1) establishments primarily engaged in answering telephone calls and relaying messages to clients and (2) establishments primarily engaged in providing telemarketing services on a contract or fee basis for others, such as promoting clients' products or services by telephone; taking orders for clients by telephone; and soliciting contributions or providing information for clients by telephone. Telemarketing establishments never own the product or provide the service that they are representing and generally originate and/or receive calls for others.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
561421Telephone Answering ServicesThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in answering telephone calls and relaying messages to clients.

Cross-References.
561422Telemarketing Bureaus and Other Contact CentersThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating call centers that initiate or receive communications for others via telephone, facsimile, email, or other communication modes for purposes such as: (1) promoting clients' products or services, (2) taking orders for clients, (3) soliciting contributions for a client, and (4) providing information or assistance regarding a client's products or services. These establishments do not own the product or provide the services they are representing on behalf of clients.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
56143Business Service Centers TThis industry comprises (1) establishments primarily engaged in providing mailbox rental and other postal and mailing services (except direct mail advertising); (2) establishments, generally known as copy centers or shops, primarily engaged in providing photocopying, duplicating, blueprinting, and other document copying services without also providing printing services (i.e., offset printing, quick printing, digital printing, prepress services); and (3) establishments that provide a range of office support services (except printing services), such as mailing services, document copying services, facsimile services, word processing services, on-site PC rental services, and office product sales.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
561431Private Mail CentersThis U.S. industry comprises (1) establishments primarily engaged in providing mailbox rental and other postal and mailing (except direct mail advertising) services or (2) establishments engaged in providing these mailing services along with one or more other office support services, such as facsimile services, word processing services, on-site PC rental services, and office product sales.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
561439Other Business Service Centers (including Copy Shops)This U.S. industry comprises (1) establishments generally known as copy centers or shops primarily engaged in providing photocopying, duplicating, blueprinting, and other document copying services, without also providing printing services (e.g., offset printing, quick printing, digital printing, prepress services) and (2) establishments (except private mail centers) engaged in providing a range of office support services (except printing services), such as document copying services, facsimile services, word processing services, on-site PC rental services, and office product sales.

Cross-References.
56144Collection Agencies TSee industry description for 561440.
561440Collection AgenciesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in collecting payments for claims and remitting payments collected to their clients.

Illustrative Examples:

Account or delinquent account collection services
Tax collection services on a contract or fee basis
Bill or debt collection services


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
56145Credit Bureaus TSee industry description for 561450.
561450Credit BureausThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in compiling information, such as credit and employment histories, and providing the information to financial institutions, retailers, and others who have a need to evaluate the creditworthiness of individuals and businesses.

Illustrative Examples:

Credit agencies
Credit rating services
Credit investigation services
Credit reporting bureaus
56149Other Business Support Services TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing business support services (except secretarial and other document preparation services; telephone answering or telemarketing services; private mail services or document copying services conducted as separate activities or in conjunction with other office support services; monetary debt collection services; and credit reporting services).

Illustrative Examples:

Address bar coding services
Mail presorting services
Bar code imprinting services
Real-time (i.e., simultaneous) closed captioning of live television performances, meetings, conferences
Court reporting services
Repossession services
Fundraising organization services on a contract or fee basis


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
561491Repossession ServicesThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in repossessing tangible assets (e.g., automobiles, boats, equipment, planes, furniture, appliances) for the creditor as a result of delinquent debts.

Cross-References.
561492Court Reporting and Stenotype ServicesThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing verbatim reporting and stenotype recording of live legal proceedings and transcribing subsequent recorded materials.

Illustrative Examples:

Court reporting or stenotype recording services
Real-time (i.e., simultaneous) closed captioning of live television performances, meetings, conferences
Public stenography services


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
561499All Other Business Support ServicesThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing business support services (except secretarial and other document preparation services; telephone answering and telemarketing services; private mail services or document copying services conducted as separate activities or in conjunction with other office support services; monetary debt collection services; credit reporting services; repossession services; and court reporting and stenotype recording services).

Illustrative Examples:

Address bar coding services
Fundraising organization services on a contract or fee basis
Bar code imprinting services
Mail presorting services


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
5615Travel Arrangement and Reservation Services TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in one of the following: (1) travel agency services; (2) arranging and assembling tours; or (3) other travel arrangement and reservation services.
56151Travel Agencies TSee industry description for 561510.
561510Travel AgenciesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in acting as agents in selling travel, tour, and accommodation services to the general public and commercial clients.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
56152Tour Operators TSee industry description for 561520.
561520Tour OperatorsThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in arranging and assembling tours. The tours are sold through travel agencies or tour operators. Travel or wholesale tour operators are included in this industry.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
56159Other Travel Arrangement and Reservation Services TThis industry comprises establishments (except travel agencies and tour operators) primarily engaged in providing travel arrangement and reservation services.

Illustrative Examples:

Condominium time-share exchange services
Road and travel services automobile clubs
Convention or visitors bureaus
Ticket (e.g., airline, bus, cruise ship, sports, theatrical) offices
Reservation (e.g., airline, car rental, hotel, restaurant) services
Ticket (e.g., amusement, sports, theatrical) agencies


Cross-References.
561591Convention and Visitors BureausThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in marketing and promoting communities and facilities to businesses and leisure travelers through a range of activities, such as assisting organizations in locating meeting and convention sites; providing travel information on area attractions, lodging accommodations, restaurants; providing maps; and organizing group tours of local historical, recreational, and cultural attractions.

Cross-References.
561599All Other Travel Arrangement and Reservation ServicesThis U.S. industry comprises establishments (except travel agencies, tour operators, and convention and visitors bureaus) primarily engaged in providing travel arrangement and reservation services.

Illustrative Examples:

Condominium time-share exchange services
Ticket (e.g., airline, bus, cruise ship, sports, theatrical) offices
Reservation (e.g., airline, car rental, hotel, restaurant) services
Ticket (e.g., amusement, sports, theatrical) agencies
Road and travel services automobile clubs


Cross-References.
5616Investigation and Security Services TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in one of the following: (1) investigation, guard, and armored car services; (2) selling security systems, such as burglar and fire alarms and locking devices, along with installation, repair, or monitoring services; or (3) remote monitoring of electronic security alarm systems.
56161Investigation, Guard, and Armored Car Services TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing one or more of the following: (1) investigation and detective services; (2) guard and patrol services; and (3) picking up and delivering money, receipts, or other valuable items with personnel and equipment to protect such properties while in transit.

Illustrative Examples:

Armored car services
Private detective services
Bodyguard services
Security guard services
Polygraph services


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
561611Investigation ServicesThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing investigation and detective services.

Illustrative Examples:

Fingerprinting services
Private detective services
Polygraph services
Private investigative services


Cross-References.
561612Security Guards and Patrol ServicesThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing guard and patrol services, such as bodyguard, guard dog, and parking security services.

Cross-References.
561613Armored Car ServicesThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in picking up and delivering money, receipts, or other valuable items. These establishments maintain personnel and equipment to protect such properties while in transit.
56162Security Systems Services TThis industry comprises establishments engaged in (1) selling security systems, such as burglar and fire alarms and locking devices, along with installation, repair, or monitoring services or (2) remote monitoring of electronic security alarm systems.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
561621Security Systems Services (except Locksmiths)This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) selling security alarm systems, such as burglar and fire alarms, along with installation, repair, or monitoring services or (2) remote monitoring of electronic security alarm systems.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
561622LocksmithsThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) selling mechanical or electronic locking devices, safes, and security vaults, along with installation, repair, rebuilding, or adjusting services or (2) installing, repairing, rebuilding, and adjusting mechanical or electronic locking devices, safes, and security vaults.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
5617Services to Buildings and Dwellings TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in one of the following: (1) exterminating and pest control services; (2) janitorial services; (3) landscaping services; (4) carpet and upholstery cleaning services; or (5) other services to buildings and dwellings.
56171Exterminating and Pest Control Services TSee industry description for 561710.
561710Exterminating and Pest Control ServicesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in exterminating and controlling birds, mosquitoes, rodents, termites, and other insects and pests (except for crop production and forestry production). Establishments providing fumigation services are included in this industry.

Cross-References.
56172Janitorial Services TSee industry description for 561720.
561720Janitorial ServicesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in cleaning building interiors, interiors of transportation equipment (e.g., aircraft, rail cars, ships), and/or windows.

Illustrative Examples:

Custodial services
Service station cleaning and degreasing services
Housekeeping (i.e., cleaning) services
Washroom sanitation services
Maid (i.e., cleaning) services


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
56173Landscaping Services TSee industry description for 561730.
561730Landscaping ServicesThis industry comprises (1) establishments primarily engaged in providing landscape care and maintenance services and/or installing trees, shrubs, plants, lawns, or gardens and (2) establishments primarily engaged in providing these services along with the design of landscape plans and/or the construction (i.e., installation) of walkways, retaining walls, decks, fences, ponds, and similar structures.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
56174Carpet and Upholstery Cleaning Services TSee industry description for 561740.
561740Carpet and Upholstery Cleaning ServicesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in cleaning and dyeing used rugs, carpets, and upholstery.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
56179Other Services to Buildings and Dwellings TSee industry description for 561790.
561790Other Services to Buildings and DwellingsThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing services to buildings and dwellings (except exterminating and pest control; janitorial; landscaping care and maintenance; and carpet and upholstery cleaning).

Illustrative Examples:

Building exterior cleaning services (except sandblasting, window cleaning)
Swimming pool cleaning and maintenance services
Chimney cleaning services
Ventilation duct cleaning services
Drain or gutter cleaning services


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
5619Other Support Services TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing day-to-day business and other organizational support services (except office administrative services; facilities support services; employment services; business support services; travel arrangement and reservation services; security and investigation services; and services to buildings and dwellings).
56191Packaging and Labeling Services TSee industry description for 561910.
561910Packaging and Labeling ServicesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in packaging client-owned materials. The services may include labeling and/or imprinting the package.

Illustrative Examples:

Apparel and textile folding and packaging services
Kit assembling and packaging services
Blister packaging services
Shrink wrapping services
Gift wrapping services


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
56192Convention and Trade Show Organizers TSee industry description for 561920.
561920Convention and Trade Show OrganizersThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in organizing, promoting, and/or managing events, such as business and trade shows, conventions, conferences, and meetings (whether or not they manage and provide the staff to operate the facilities in which these events take place).

Cross-References.
56199All Other Support Services TSee industry description for 561990.
561990All Other Support ServicesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing day-to-day business and other organizational support services (except office administrative services, facilities support services, employment services, business support services, travel arrangement and reservation services, security and investigation services, services to buildings and other structures, packaging and labeling services, and convention and trade show organizing services).

Illustrative Examples:

Bartering services
Flagging (i.e., traffic control) services
Bottle exchanges
Float decorating services
Cloth cutting, bolting, or winding for the trade
Inventory taking services
Contract meter reading services
Lumber grading services
Diving services on a contract or fee basis


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
562Waste Management and Remediation Services TIndustries in the Waste Management and Remediation Services subsector group establishments engaged in the collection, treatment, and disposal of waste materials. This includes establishments engaged in local hauling of waste materials; operating materials recovery facilities (i.e., those that sort recyclable materials from the trash stream); providing remediation services (i.e., those that provide for the cleanup of contaminated buildings, mine sites, soil, or ground water); and providing septic pumping and other miscellaneous waste management services. There are three industry groups within the subsector that separate these activities into waste collection, waste treatment and disposal, and remediation and other waste management.

Excluded from this subsector are establishments primarily engaged in collecting, treating, and disposing waste through sewer systems or sewage treatment facilities that are classified in Industry 22132, Sewage Treatment Facilities, and establishments primarily engaged in long-distance hauling of waste materials that are classified in Industry 48423, Specialized Freight (except Used Goods) Trucking, Long-Distance. Also, there are some activities that appear to be related to waste management, but that are not included in this subsector. For example, establishments primarily engaged in providing waste management consulting services are classified in Industry 54162, Environmental Consulting Services.
5621Waste CollectionNULL
56211Waste CollectionThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) collecting and/or hauling hazardous waste, nonhazardous waste, and/or recyclable materials within a local area and/or (2) operating hazardous or nonhazardous waste transfer stations. Hazardous waste collection establishments may be responsible for the identification, treatment, packaging, and labeling of waste for the purposes of transport.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
562111Solid Waste CollectionThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) collecting and/or hauling nonhazardous solid waste (i.e., garbage) within a local area; (2) operating nonhazardous solid waste transfer stations; and (3) collecting and/or hauling mixed recyclable materials within a local area.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
562112Hazardous Waste CollectionThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in collecting and/or hauling hazardous waste within a local area and/or operating hazardous waste transfer stations. Hazardous waste collection establishments may be responsible for the identification, treatment, packaging, and labeling of waste for the purposes of transport.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
562119Other Waste CollectionThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in collecting and/or hauling waste (except nonhazardous solid waste and hazardous waste) within a local area. Establishments engaged in brush or rubble removal services are included in this industry.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
5622Waste Treatment and DisposalNULL
56221Waste Treatment and DisposalThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) operating waste treatment or disposal facilities (except sewer systems or sewage treatment facilities) or (2) the combined activity of collecting and/or hauling of waste materials within a local area and operating waste treatment or disposal facilities. Waste combustors or incinerators (including those that may produce byproducts, such as electricity), solid waste landfills, and compost dumps are included in this industry.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
562211Hazardous Waste Treatment and DisposalThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) operating treatment and/or disposal facilities for hazardous waste or (2) the combined activity of collecting and/or hauling of hazardous waste materials within a local area and operating treatment or disposal facilities for hazardous waste.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
562212Solid Waste LandfillThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) operating landfills for the disposal of nonhazardous solid waste or (2) the combined activity of collecting and/or hauling nonhazardous waste materials within a local area and operating landfills for the disposal of nonhazardous solid waste. These establishments may produce byproducts, such as methane.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
562213Solid Waste Combustors and IncineratorsThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating combustors and incinerators for the disposal of nonhazardous solid waste. These establishments may produce byproducts, such as electricity and steam.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
562219Other Nonhazardous Waste Treatment and DisposalThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) operating nonhazardous waste treatment and disposal facilities (except landfills, combustors, incinerators and sewer systems or sewage treatment facilities) or (2) the combined activity of collecting and/or hauling of nonhazardous waste materials within a local area and operating waste treatment or disposal facilities (except landfills, combustors, incinerators and sewer systems, or sewage treatment facilities). Compost dumps are included in this industry.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
5629Remediation and Other Waste Management ServicesThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in remediation and other waste management services (except waste collection, waste treatment and disposal, and waste management consulting services).
56291Remediation ServicesSee industry description for 562910.
562910Remediation ServicesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (1) remediation and cleanup of contaminated buildings, mine sites, soil, or ground water; (2) integrated mine reclamation activities, including demolition, soil remediation, waste water treatment, hazardous material removal, contouring land, and revegetation; and (3) asbestos, lead paint, and other toxic material abatement.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
56292Materials Recovery FacilitiesSee industry description for 562920.
562920Materials Recovery FacilitiesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) operating facilities for separating and sorting recyclable materials from nonhazardous waste streams (i.e., garbage) and/or (2) operating facilities where commingled recyclable materials, such as paper, plastics, used beverage cans, and metals, are sorted into distinct categories.

Cross-References.
56299All Other Waste Management ServicesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in waste management services (except waste collection, waste treatment and disposal, remediation, operation of materials recovery facilities, and waste management consulting services).

Illustrative Examples:

Beach cleaning and maintenance services
Pumping (i.e., cleaning) cesspools, portable toilets, or septic tanks
Cesspool cleaning services
Sewer cleaning and rodding services
Portable toilet renting and/or servicing
Sewer or storm basin cleanout services


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
562991Septic Tank and Related ServicesThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) pumping (i.e., cleaning) septic tanks and cesspools and/or (2) renting and/or servicing portable toilets.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
562998All Other Miscellaneous Waste Management ServicesThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing waste management services (except waste collection, waste treatment and disposal, remediation, operation of materials recovery facilities, septic tank pumping and related services, and waste management consulting services).

Illustrative Examples:

Beach cleaning and maintenance services
Sewer or storm basin cleanout services
Catch basin cleaning services
Tank cleaning and disposal services, commercial or industrial
Sewer cleaning and rodding services


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
61Educational Services TThe Sector as a Whole

The Educational Services sector comprises establishments that provide instruction and training in a wide variety of subjects. This instruction and training is provided by specialized establishments, such as schools, colleges, universities, and training centers. These establishments may be privately owned and operated for profit or not for profit, or they may be publicly owned and operated. They may also offer food and/or accommodation services to their students.

Educational services are usually delivered by teachers or instructors that explain, tell, demonstrate, supervise, and direct learning. Instruction is imparted in diverse settings, such as educational institutions, the workplace, or the home, and through diverse means, such as correspondence, television, the Internet, or other electronic and distance-learning methods. The training provided by these establishments may include the use of simulators and simulation methods. It can be adapted to the particular needs of the students, for example sign language can replace verbal language for teaching students with hearing impairments. All industries in the sector share this commonality of process, namely, labor inputs of instructors with the requisite subject matter expertise and teaching ability.
611Educational Services TIndustries in the Educational Services subsector provide instruction and training in a wide variety of subjects. The instruction and training is provided by specialized establishments, such as schools, colleges, universities, and training centers.

The subsector is structured according to level and type of educational services. Elementary and secondary schools, junior colleges and colleges, universities, and professional schools correspond to a recognized series of formal levels of education designated by diplomas, associate degrees (including equivalent certificates), and degrees. The remaining industry groups are based more on the type of instruction or training offered, and the levels are not always as formally defined. The establishments are often highly specialized, many offering instruction in a very limited subject matter, for example ski lessons or one specific computer software package. Within the subsector, the level and types of training that are required of the instructors and teachers vary depending on the industry.

Establishments that manage schools and other educational establishments on a contractual basis are classified in this subsector if they both manage the operation and provide the operating staff. Such establishments are classified in the Educational Services subsector based on the type of facility managed and operated.
6111Elementary and Secondary Schools TNULL
61111Elementary and Secondary SchoolsSee industry description for 611110.
611110Elementary and Secondary SchoolsThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in furnishing academic courses and associated course work that comprise a basic preparatory education. A basic preparatory education ordinarily constitutes kindergarten through 12th grade. This industry includes school boards and school districts.

Illustrative Examples:

Elementary schools
Parochial schools, elementary or secondary
High schools
Primary schools
Kindergartens
Schools for the physically disabled, elementary or secondary
Military academies, elementary or secondary


Cross-References.
6112Junior Colleges TNULL
61121Junior Colleges TSee industry description for 611210.
611210Junior CollegesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in furnishing academic, or academic and technical, courses and granting associate degrees, certificates, or diplomas below the baccalaureate level. The requirement for admission to an associate or equivalent degree program is at least a high school diploma or equivalent general academic training. Instruction may be provided in diverse settings, such as the establishment's or client's training facilities, educational institutions, the workplace, or the home, and through diverse means, such as correspondence, television, the Internet, or other electronic and distance-learning methods. The training provided by these establishments may include the use of simulators and simulation methods.
6113Colleges, Universities, and Professional Schools TNULL
61131Colleges, Universities, and Professional Schools TSee industry description for 611310.
611310Colleges, Universities, and Professional SchoolsThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in furnishing academic courses and granting degrees at baccalaureate or graduate levels. The requirement for admission is at least a high school diploma or equivalent general academic training. Instruction may be provided in diverse settings, such as the establishment's or client's training facilities, educational institutions, the workplace, or the home, and through diverse means, such as correspondence, television, the Internet, or other electronic and distance-learning methods. The training provided by these establishments may include the use of simulators and simulation methods.

Illustrative Examples:

Colleges (except junior colleges)
Theological seminaries offering baccalaureate or graduate degrees
Military academies, college level
Universities
Professional schools (e.g., business administration, dental, law, medical)


Cross-References.
6114Business Schools and Computer and Management Training TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in one of the following: (1) offering courses in office procedures and secretarial and stenographic skills and may offer courses in basic office skills, such as word processing; (2) conducting computer training (except computer repair); or (3) offering an array of short duration courses and seminars for management and professional development. Instruction may be provided in diverse settings, such as the establishment's or client's training facilities, educational institutions, the workplace, or the home, and through diverse means, such as correspondence, television, the Internet, or other electronic and distance-learning methods. The training provided by these establishments may include the use of simulators and simulation methods.
61141Business and Secretarial Schools TSee industry description for 611410.
611410Business and Secretarial SchoolsThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in offering courses in office procedures and secretarial and stenographic skills and may offer courses in basic office skills, such as word processing. In addition, these establishments may offer such classes as office machine operation, reception, communications, and other skills designed for individuals pursuing a clerical or secretarial career. Instruction may be provided in diverse settings, such as the establishment's or client's training facilities, educational institutions, the workplace, or the home, and through diverse means, such as correspondence, television, the Internet, or other electronic and distance-learning methods. The training provided by these establishments may include the use of simulators and simulation methods.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
61142Computer Training TSee industry description for 611420.
611420Computer TrainingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in conducting computer training (except computer repair), such as computer programming, software packages, computerized business systems, computer electronics technology, computer operations, and local area network management. Instruction may be provided in diverse settings, such as the establishment's or client's training facilities, educational institutions, the workplace, or the home, and through diverse means, such as correspondence, television, the Internet, or other electronic and distance-learning methods. The training provided by these establishments may include the use of simulators and simulation methods.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
61143Professional and Management Development Training TSee industry description for 611430.
611430Professional and Management Development TrainingThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in offering an array of short duration courses and seminars for management and professional development. Training for career development may be provided directly to individuals or through employers' training programs, and courses may be customized or modified to meet the special needs of customers. Instruction may be provided in diverse settings, such as the establishment's or client's training facilities, educational institutions, the workplace, or the home, and through diverse means, such as correspondence, television, the Internet, or other electronic and distance-learning methods. The training provided by these establishments may include the use of simulators and simulation methods.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
6115Technical and Trade Schools TNULL
61151Technical and Trade Schools TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in offering vocational and technical training in a variety of technical subjects and trades. The training often leads to job-specific certification. Instruction may be provided in diverse settings, such as the establishment's or client's training facilities, educational institutions, the workplace, or the home, and through diverse means, such as correspondence, television, the Internet, or other electronic and distance-learning methods. The training provided by these establishments may include the use of simulators and simulation methods.

Illustrative Examples:

Apprenticeship training programs
Graphic arts schools
Aviation and flight training schools
Modeling schools
Computer repair training
Nursing schools (except academic)
Cosmetology schools
Real estate schools
Electronic equipment repair training
Truck driving schools


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
611511Cosmetology and Barber SchoolsThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in offering training in barbering, hair styling, or the cosmetic arts, such as makeup or skin care. These schools provide job-specific certification.
611512Flight TrainingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in offering aviation and flight training. These establishments may offer vocational training, recreational training, or both.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
611513Apprenticeship TrainingThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in offering apprenticeship training programs. These programs involve applied training as well as course work.
611519Other Technical and Trade SchoolsThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in offering job or career vocational or technical courses (except cosmetology and barber training, aviation and flight training, and apprenticeship training). The curriculums offered by these schools are highly structured and specialized and lead to job-specific certification.

Illustrative Examples:

Bartending schools
Modeling schools
Broadcasting schools
Real estate schools
Computer repair training
Truck driving schools
Graphic arts schools
Specialized military training (except flight instruction, academies, and basic training)


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
6116Other Schools and Instruction TThis industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in offering or providing instruction (except academic schools, colleges, and universities; and business, computer, management, technical, or trade instruction). Instruction may be provided in diverse settings, such as the establishment's or client's training facilities, educational institutions, the workplace, or the home, and through diverse means, such as correspondence, television, the Internet, or other electronic and distance-learning methods. The training provided by these establishments may include the use of simulators and simulation methods.
61161Fine Arts Schools TSee industry description for 611610.
611610Fine Arts SchoolsThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in offering instruction in the arts, including dance, art, drama, and music.

Illustrative Examples:

Art (except commercial and graphic) instruction
Music instruction (e.g., piano, guitar)
Dance instruction
Music schools (except academic)
Dance studios
Performing arts schools (except academic)
Drama schools (except academic)
Photography schools (except commercial photography)
Fine arts schools (except academic)


Cross-References.
61162Sports and Recreation Instruction TSee industry description for 611620.
611620Sports and Recreation InstructionThis industry comprises establishments, such as camps and schools, primarily engaged in offering instruction in athletic activities to groups of individuals. Overnight and day sports instruction camps are included in this industry.

Illustrative Examples:

Camps, sports instruction
Professional sports instructors (i.e., not participating in sporting events)
Cheerleading instruction
Riding instruction academies or schools
Gymnastics instruction
Sports (e.g., baseball, basketball, football, golf) instruction
Martial arts instruction, camps or schools
Swimming instruction


Cross-References.
61163Language Schools TSee industry description for 611630.
611630Language SchoolsThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in offering foreign language instruction (including sign language). These establishments are designed to offer language instruction ranging from conversational skills for personal enrichment to intensive training courses for career or educational opportunities.

Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
61169All Other Schools and Instruction TThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in offering instruction (except business, computer, management, technical, trade, fine arts, athletic, and language instruction). Also excluded from this industry are academic schools, colleges, and universities.

Illustrative Examples:

Academic tutoring services
Public speaking training
Automobile driving schools
Speed reading instruction
Exam preparation services


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
611691Exam Preparation and TutoringThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in offering preparation for standardized examinations and/or academic tutoring services.

Illustrative Examples:

Academic tutoring services
Learning centers offering remedial courses
College board preparation centers
Professional examination review instruction
611692Automobile Driving SchoolsThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in offering automobile driving instruction.

Cross-References.
611699All Other Miscellaneous Schools and InstructionThis U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in offering instruction (except business, computer, management, technical, trade, fine arts, athletic, language instruction, tutoring, and automobile driving instruction). Also excluded from this industry are academic schools, colleges, and universities.

Illustrative Examples:

Public speaking training
Survival training
Speed reading instruction
Yoga instruction, camps, or schools


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
6117Educational Support Services TNULL
61171Educational Support Services TSee industry description for 611710.
611710Educational Support ServicesThis industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing non-instructional services that support educational processes or systems.

Illustrative Examples:

Educational consultants
Educational testing services
Educational guidance counseling services
Student exchange programs
Educational testing evaluation services


Cross-References. Establishments primarily engaged in--
62Health Care and Social Assistance TThe Sector as a Whole

The Health Care and Social Assistance sector comprises establishments providing health care and social assistance for individuals. The sector includes both health care and social assistance because it is sometimes difficult to distinguish between the boundaries of these two activities. The industries in this sector are arranged on a continuum starting with establishments providing medical care exclusively, continuing with those providing health care and social assistance, and finally finishing with those providing only social assistance. Establishments in this sector deliver services by trained professionals. All industries in the sector share this commonality of process, namely, labor inputs of health practitioners or social workers with the requisite expertise. Many of the industries in the sector are defined based on the educational degree held by the practitioners included in the industry.

Excluded from this sector are aerobic classes in Subsector 713, Amusement, Gambling, and Recreation Industries, and non-medical diet and weight reducing centers in Subsector 812, Personal and Laundry Services. Although these can be viewed as health services, these services are not typically delivered by health practitioners.
621Ambulatory Health Care Services TIndustries in the Ambulatory Health Care Services subsector provide health care services directly or indirectly to ambulatory patients and do not usually provide inpatient services. Health practitioners in this subsector provide outpatient services, with the facilities and equipment not usually being the most significant part of the production process.
6211Offices of Physicians TNULL
62111Offices of Physicians TThis industry comprises establishments of health practitioners having the degree of M.D. (Doctor of Medicine) or D.O. (Doctor of Osteopathy) primarily engaged in the independent practice of general or specialized medicine (e.g., anesthesiology, oncology, ophthalmology, psychiatry) or surgery. These practitioners operate private or group practices in their own offices (e.g., centers, clinics) or in the facilities of others, such as hospitals or HMO medical centers.

Cross-References.
621111Offices of Physicians (except Mental Health Specialists)This U.S. industry comprises establishments of health practitioners having the degree of M.D. (Doctor of Medicine) or D.O. (Doctor of Osteopathy) primarily engaged in the independent practice of general or specialized medicine (except psychiatry or psychoanalysis) or surgery. These practitioners operate private or group practices in their own offices (e.g., centers, clinics) or in the facilities of others, such as hospitals or HMO medical centers.

Cross-References.
621112Offices of Physicians, Mental Health SpecialistsThis U.S. industry comprises establishments of health practitioners having the degree of M.D. (Doctor of Medicine) or D.O. (Doctor of Osteopathy) primarily engaged in the independent practice of psychiatry or psychoanalysis. These practitioners operate private or group practices in their own offices (e.g., centers, clinics) or in the facilities of others, such as hospitals or HMO medical centers.
6212Offices of Dentists TNULL
62121Offices of Dentists TSee industry description for 621210.
621210Offices of DentistsThis industry comprises establishments of health practitioners having the degree of D.M.D. (Doctor of Dental Medicine), D.D.S. (Doctor of Dental Surgery), or D.D.Sc. (Doctor of Dental Science) primarily engaged in the independent practice of general or specialized dentistry or dental surgery. These practitioners operate private or group practices in their own offices (e.g., centers, clinics) or in the facilities of others, such as hospitals or HMO medical centers. They can provide either comprehensive preventive, cosmetic, or emergency care, or specialize in a single field of dentistry.

Cross-References.
6213Offices of Other Health Practitioners TThis industry group comprises establishments of independent health practitioners (except physicians and dentists).
62131Offices of Chiropractors TSee industry description for 621310.
621310Offices of ChiropractorsThis industry comprises establishments of health practitioners having the degree of D.C. (Doctor of Chiropractic) primarily engaged in the independent practice of chiropractic. These practitioners provide diagnostic and therapeutic treatment of neuromusculoskeletal and related disorders through the manipulation and adjustment of the spinal column and extremities, and operate private or group practices in their own offices (e.g., centers, clinics) or in the facilities of others, such as hospitals or HMO medical centers.